#APHA15, Day Two: Monday is for Networking (and @ninjasforhealth)

After dashing hither and thither on the first day of the conference to ensure that our HIV testing late-breaker was ready, I woke up early on Monday morning to be ready for the real meat of the professional conference experience: networking.

International Health Section: Second Business Meeting 
The second IH business meeting – always held delightfully early at 7 a.m. – traditionally focuses on reports and updates of Section activities, both at the Annual Meeting and throughout the year. Most of the activity involves the elected leadership and committee/working group chairs. This year we had several observers, both regular members and students, which I thought was great, as it allows members to see the meat of what the Section does. GC Whip Carol Dabbs presented policies of interest that will go before the Governing Council today (including one on climate change), and Governing Counselor Caroline Kingori gave an overview of the candidates for APHA President-Elect and Executive Board. Program co-chairs Mini Murthy and Vamsi Vasireddy then discussed successes and reflections of the Program Committee in reviewing abstracts and putting the Section’s program together for the AM, which includes both scientific and invited sessions. (This committee is a great way to gain experience reviewing abstracts and always needs help – students, take note!) Finally, Global Health Connections Committee Chair Theresa Majeski engaged section members and leadership on how to better engage students and new members, including some strategies for improving how our Section communicates its activities (I guess that’s me). I personally plan to take those suggestions to heart, so readers will hopefully see some changes to this blog in the coming weeks, once the AM irons cool and we all recover from traveling.

Students Want Jobs: IHSC’s Career Roundtable
My next stop was the Career Roundtable session, where the Student Committee asked me to lead a discussion table as a freelancer and still-aspiring global health professional. My personal goal was to show that landing that “perfect job” in global health can sometimes take more time and persistence than originally anticipated, but there are different paths a professional can take to get there (including working in domestic public health to gain experience). I also wanted to provide a “Millenial” perspective on breaking into the field, as paths of entry now look very different than they did for Gen X. I also feel like my publications and freelance history in global health work speak for themselves, but I get that not everyone is interested in doing freelance work.

This was a very interesting experience for me. As predicted, students were hungry for tips on how to get an edge in the application process, how to get applicable volunteer experience (like participating in IH section activities), what types of short-term experience abroad are valuable for a resume, how to frame their domestic public health experience when applying for global health positions later (if they chose to go that route), and – always the key question – how to make themselves stand out from the (massive and ever-growing) pile of applications for the highly-coveted global health full-time jobs. There were questions about the Peace Corps (whose recent re-vamp of the way volunteers are recruited is much improved, thank God), how to secure valuable internships (and what those look like), the value of short-term missions trips, and where to find post-graduate fellowships that provide the initial year or two of experience required of most permanent positions. I also strove to keep the discussion candid, which gave me a chance to glimpse both the zeal and frustration of aspiring professionals of my generation. Stories of applying to dozens of jobs with a steady stream of rejections, worry over servicing student loans post-graduation, and outrage over the abundance of unpaid internships were common. I strove to emphasize that experience in state and local health departments and domestic non-profits can go a long way in building skills required by global health jobs, and that volunteer experience with global health and development organizations (like working with the IH Section!) is just as valuable as paid work. One student even asked me if I put my work with the IH Section on my resume, and I was proud to say that I do – and I usually put it first.

Public Health Expo: Staffing the Section Booth, Scoping out Schools, and Networking with Ninjas
The expo is one of my favorite parts of the AM. I love the bigness and busy-ness of it, and I have a hard time resisting the SWAG (though I was mostly successful this time since I am flying with Spirit). I started out by staffing the IH Section’s booth (many thanks to members who volunteered to do this, btw), engaging members and attendees interested in Section membership and promoting our Section activities at the during the meeting.

Section leaders at our booth in the Expo.

Section leaders at our booth in the Expo.

After my shift, I spent some time collecting information on doctoral programs from schools of public health, as I expect to be in the market for a Ph.D. or DrPH program in the next year or two. I got some great information on how to seek out funding and even got to practice my (rusty) French with the outreach coordinator of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Unfortunately, I can never resist the LSHTM mugs, so I will have to find space for it in my oh-so-professional Hello Kitty bag.

I also chatted with several global health employers and programs, including PHI’s Global Health Fellows Program with USAID, Abt Associates, and the Public Health Institute. But my favorite booth by far was Ninjas for Health. This duo focuses on bringing emerging tech and development talent into public health and impressed me by calling for improvement and a wider variety of talent to the APHA Codeathon, which debuted this year (I think). These guys speak my language, and I highly encourage any members interested in technology, ICT4D, programming, and social media to check them out.

Note to self: Go back to this booth and buy a ninja t-shirt.

Next up: Tuesday is for Science!

#APHA15, Day One: Sunday is for Scrambling a Late-Breaker and Section Introductions

Good evening, all, and – for those of you attending – welcome to Chicago and APHA’s Annual Meeting! According to tradition (and my job besides), I will be blogging my experiences at the Annual Meeting. I arrived yesterday, so I am obviously behind, but hopefully section readers will forgive the delay. After saying up all night to revise my late-breaker proposal (more on that below), it was all I could do yesterday to eat dinner and collapse into bed after a busy (and hectic) start to the meeting.

Scrambling a Late-Breaker Policy Proposal: Opposition to Forced HIV Testing as a Condition of Employment for Foreign Nationals
After the UN CERD issued its ruling that South Korea’s policy of mandatory HIV tests for foreign English teachers constituted racial discrimination, I joined forces with our Section’s Advocacy/Policy Committee, along with the HIV/AIDS Section (which endorsed the late-breaker) to craft a late-breaker policy for APHA to take a stance against HIV tests as a condition of employment for immigrants. Having never written a policy proposal before, there was a lot of trial and error on my part, but after some back-and-forth and fine-tuning, I submitted the proposal in mid-September on behalf of the IH Section. I was disappointed to receive the rejection letter last Tuesday but chalked it up to my inexperience with the process and resolved to re-submit it as a full policy proposal for next year’s meeting.

Imagine my surprise when, on Saturday afternoon, I got another e-mail from the Joint Policy Committee explaining that they had changed their ruling to allow the policy to proceed to the JPC hearings on Sunday. I cheerfully forwarded the message on to the colleagues who had helped me…and then I realized that I would have to revise the proposal according to the suggestions in the initial rejection letter in the next 24 hours. So, after a delightful afternoon at Austin Comic Con as Attack on Titan‘s Annie Leonhart, I spent the rest of the day revising the late-breaker and scrambling to arrange meetings with willing colleagues in other Sections (many thanks to Andy Baker-White from the Law Section) to serve as a fresh pair of eyes.

International Health Section: First Business Meeting
After sending off the revised late-breaker, it was time for the IH Section’s first business meeting. I must say that it continues to improve each year, and this year’s approach was targeted and purposeful for student members in particular, who had a chance to rotate to different committee and working group chairs seated at different tables. As usual, we had quite a few students who were interested in learning more about what we do and how they could get involved in our activities. It was great to see longtime colleagues and meet new people. Students, please visit our About page for contact information for our committees and working groups, and reach out to get involved!

JPC Hearings: Part Two of the Sudden Late-Breaker Saga
After submitting the revised draft of the Late-Breaker and (re)connecting with IH Section members, I dashed off to the JPC hearings for policy proposals and late-breakers. I was slightly intimidated at the prospect of explaining (and potentially defending) the late-breaker, but Kevin Sykes, our A/P Committee Chair, helpfully broke down the procedures and let me know what to expect. The hearings themselves were pretty tame (although to be fair, my own mental picture of Benghazi-esque questioning was probably not realistic). Fortunately, our late-breaker received support from the HIV/AIDS Section and the Occupational Health and Safety Section and was recommended to the Governing Council for adoption by the JPC. Success!

It just goes to show that even someone totally green can succeed with enough support and persistence (and very little sleep).

Soon to follow: Monday is for Networking (and Ninjas for Health). Stay tuned!

Featured Global Health Sessions at the Annual Meeting

Attention, APHA Annual Meeting Attendees! Vina HuLamm, APHA’s Global Health Manager, has asked us to highlight several sessions and invite you all to attend. The global health diplomacy and women leaders in global health sessions will be of particular interest. You can view the entire Global Health program for the meeting here.

Monday, November 2, 2015
8:30 a.m.-10:00 a.m.

3014.0 U.S. – Mexico Border Health: Challenges and Opportunities

10:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
3129.0 Public Health Associations: a voice for global public health

12:30 p.m.-2:00 p.m.
3232.0 Applied Global Health Diplomacy – Linking communities with government for better health policy and population health

2:30 p.m.-4:00 p.m.
3334.0 Alliance of Public Health Associations in the Americas: A new vehicle for improving population health and health equity in our hemisphere

Tuesday, November 3, 2015
8:30 a.m.-10:00 a.m.
4013.0 Non-communicable Diseases and Mental Health: A challenge for health systems

10:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
4108.0 Sustainable Development Goals and Health in All Policies

2:30 p.m.-4:00 p.m.
4294.0 Raising Stories and Voices in Health & Development
4294.1 Who runs the world? The role of women leadership in the new global Sustainable Development Goals

4:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m.
4397.2 Building Health Systems through the Faith-Based and Public Sectors to Advance Universal Health Coverage in Low-Resource and Post-Conflict Settings

Wednesday, November 4, 2015
8:30 a.m.-10:00 a.m.
5031.0 Diabetes Prevention Treatment and Care in Cuba – implications for US Public Health

IH Section Activities at the APHA Annual Meeting – Please join us!

Attention, APHA Annual Meeting Attendees! The IH Section leaders and members are looking forward to next week’s meeting and invite registered Section members (as well as those interested in becoming Section members) to attend the our meetings and networking events. Below please find a short summary of our activities, including several specifically geared toward students and early career professionals who want to get involved and learn more about careers in global health. We look forward to seeing you in Chicago next week!

IH Section Business Meeting 1 will give new and renewed members a chance to meet colleagues and learn about how to get involved in the many committees and activities.  Session 235.0
When: Sunday, November 1, 2-3:30 pm
Where: W190a McCormick Place CC

Visit the IH Section Booth in the Exhibit Hall, Booth #1429-7B

All are welcome to attend the following IH Section Committee meetings:

Global Health Students Committee. Session 281.0
A great opportunity for students to meet and get the most out of APHA membership.
When: Sunday November 1, 4–5:30 pm
Where: W184bc McCormick Place CC
Contact: Neil Patel/ Hannah Elsevier <apha.ihsc@gmail.com>

International Maternal Child Health Working GroupSession 282.0
When: Sunday November 1, 4–5:30 pm
Where:  W196a McCormick Place CC
Contact: Laura Altobelli <laura@future.edu>

Community-Based Primary Health Care Working GroupSession 355.0
When: Monday November 2, 6:30–8 pm
Where: W185a McCormick Place CC
Contact: Laura Parajon <lauraparajon@amoshealth.org>

International Health Advocacy and Policy Committee. Session 356.0
When: Monday November 2, 6:30–8 pm
Where: W470a McCormick Place CC
Contact: Kevin Sykes <kjsykes13@gmail.com>

Global Health Connections Working Group
Join our group of young international health professionals.
When: Wednesday November 4, 6:30–8 am
Where: W470a McCormick Place CC
Contact: Theresa Majeski <theresa.majeski@gmail.com>

Don’t miss the IH Section Reception and Awards Ceremony.  Session: 425.0
There will be a student networking activity, opportunities to talk with fellow section members, and much more.
When: Tuesday November 3, 6–9 pm
Where: W185d McCormick Place CC

For the complete listing of IH Section Sessions please see:  https://apha.confex.com/apha/143am/webprogram/IH.html

Sign up on APHA Connect to receive regular information about IH Section activities during the year.  Go to http://connect.apha.org to create an account and set up your profile.

Modern Day Slavery: A Public Health Concern?

Guest Blogger: Carli Richie-Zavaleta

Social Justice in Public Health

Dan Beauchamp’s professional and academic works have established a legacy of connecting public health with social justice. It was during my first year of a graduate program at Drexel University School of Public Health when I was introduced to the framework of Social Justice in Public Health. Through Beauchamp’s social justice framework, we—public health students, practitioners, and researchers—are challenged to rethink our approaches to public health practice. He challenges us to dismantle the social structures of society and examine health disparities. His framework is to analyze health disparities as consequences of a lack of an ethical approach to the protection of the health of those who have limited or no social, political and economic power in society. Recognizing these social structures that benefit those in power and create disproportionate health disparities among vulnerable subgroups of the population is the first step. Secondly, it is not enough for Beauchamp to merely illuminate the health disparities in society. For him, being a public health doer is a collective movement that struggles politically to restructure fundamental systems of justice.

As I have experienced graduate school here in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Beauchamp’s framework has resonated with me more and more. It has pushed me to rethink my public health doing in terms of finding approaches that continue to create collective definitions of public health that prevent health disparities. More importantly, it has challenged me to begin seeking a greater understanding of policy creation—one that would be effective at protecting those who are vulnerable due to health disparities.

Modern Day Slavery and Public Health – The Connection

It was twelve years ago when I first learned about Modern Day Slavery (MDS). It was through reading “Disposable People New Slavery in the Global Economy” by Kevin Bales (1998). MDS, commonly known as Human Trafficking or Trafficking in Persons, is a global issue that is found in most corners of the world—most likely in your own locality. Research of MDS victims’ vulnerabilities (qualities that put victims at higher risk prior to their experiences), speaks loudly of the inequalities and health disparities these people are burdened with, prior to their victimization (See Supplementary Reference List[i]). Here lies the call for concern for public health doers: to create a collective concern for MDS in our field, as a preventable social peril, especially for those who are most vulnerable. In addition, in our attempts to narrow the gap of health disparities, it raises the need to prioritize the creation of policies and accountability of said policies to protect the lives of those who are disenfranchised in our communities, including the United States of America.

No easy solutions exist to address social perils; yet, the history of mankind demonstrates that when collective forces unite their voices, talents, and resources, change happens. Examples of achieved social change in the context of the US are the African American man’s right to vote, a woman’s rights to vote, and more recently, the unconstitutionality of DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act). In the international context, the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Millennium Development Goals, and now the working of the Sustainable Development Goals are also great examples of collective movements that have forged new paths of justice and protection of human rights.

When I first learned about the social peril of MDS, I was hopeless and overwhelmed to say the least, but I have come to develop new perspective. I have seen through my professional and academic background that beginning with our locality, we can move forward to create change. California was the first state in the US to define MDS at a state level. This was a collective effort of local committed citizens, MDS survivors, non-for-profit organizations, and governmental agencies that came together to create a state-level definition of Human Trafficking. The goals were to be able to prosecute the Human Traffickers, but also to increase the protection of victims, to provide more financial resources to victims, and to create programs that focus on assisting and providing victims autonomy once more. The latter resulted in the creation and the passing of CASE (Californians Against Sexual Exploitation) with over 10 million votes! As I witnessed and participated in the process as part of this movement in my locality at the time, San Diego, California, I developed an approach to engage in social change:

CRZ graphic

The above model is not a simple one. It requires at the very least a commitment to the cause, time, and resources; nonetheless, that is what we are being challenged to do when we want to be doers of Public Health.

My hope is that you join me in the collective construction of MDS as a concern in the Public Health field in our localities. As we join together, we can propagate a culture of social justice that translates into the narrowing of human right violations and health disparities. As a MDS survivor put it, “…in the fight to abolish [MDS] we all stand in Unity! There is no big I’s and little U’s”.[1]

[1] Supplementary Reference List

  1. Bean, L. J. (2013, June 26). LGBTQ Youth at High Risk of Becoming Human Trafficking Victims. Retrieved June 14, 2014, from Administration for Children & Families: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/blog/2013/06/lgbtq-youth-at-high-risk-of-becoming-human-trafficking-victims
  2. Greenbaum, V. J., and Crawford-Jakubiak, J. E. (2015, March). Child Sex Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation: Health Care Needs of Victims. Pediatrics , 566-574.
  3. Greenbaum, V. J. (2014). Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care , 44 (9), 245-269.
  4. Hodge, D. (2008). Sexual trafficking in the United States: a domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work , 53 (2), 143-52.
  5. Oram S, S. ̈. (2012). Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental, and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review. PLoS Med , 9 (5), online.
  6. Polaris Project. (2014). Human Trafficking The Victims. Retrieved May 10, 2014, from Polaris Project: http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/overview/the-victims
  7. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2013, June 26). LGBTQ Youth at High Risk of Becoming Human Trafficking Victims. Retrieved June 14, 2014, from Administration for Children and Families: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/blog/2013/06/lgbtq-youth-at-high-risk-of-becoming-human-trafficking-victims
  8. Walk Free Foundation. (2015, April 17). Findings. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from Global Slavery Index: http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/findings/

[2] Miller, D. (2013). I have a dream. In A. C. Richie-Zavaleta (Ed.), Unheard Voices of Redemption Transforming Oppression to Hope (p 125). San Diego: Justice Press. (Original work published 2013). http://justicepress.net/home.html

carli pic

 Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta, MASP, MAIPS, DrPH(c)

Carli grew up in Mexico City and immigrated to the US at age sixteen. She has worked as a professor of Sociology, medical interpreter, program director, field researcher, and mediator with diverse populations in the United States and abroad—from children to adults with a range of socioeconomic, cultural, and racially diverse backgrounds. Since 2010, Carli has focused her energy on conducting social research on human trafficking in San Diego, California, as well as volunteering for non-for-profit organizations that reach out to victims trapped in sexual exploitation. Her research and advocacy work in San Diego, California culminated in the publication Unheard Voices of Redemption Transforming Oppression to Hope (2013)—an anthology of creative writing and essays from victims and those who advocate in ending Modern Day Slavery (MDS). Carli is currently a doctoral candidate in the School of Public Health at Drexel University under the department of Community Health and Prevention. Her doctoral dissertation focuses on understanding the experiences of MDS survivors in the health care settings with the aim to create feasible and viable intervention programs to identify and assist potential victims.

Water is Life by Mary Louise Tatum


Water is the essence of life. Your body is mostly composed of water, approximately 60% (water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html).  As a result, without water you would cease to exist. Yet, 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water (World Health Organization). The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation’s Children Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for water and sanitation defines drinking water as: water with microbial, chemical, and physical characteristics that meet WHO guidelines and are used for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene. The collaboration further defines access to safe drinking water as a source that is less than 1 kilometer away from place of use and reliably supplies 20 liters per household member daily (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/mdg1/en/).

One of the natural wonders of the world, Victoria Falls, located in Zambia, has approximately 625 million liters of water flowing over its edge per minute (www.victoriafalls-guide.net/facts-on-victoria-falls.html). During the peak flood season, the Falls create a thunderous roar and drench all that is near. Nevertheless, UNICEF reports 4.8 million—approximately one third of the population— Zambians are without access to clean water. Moreover, insufficient drinking water and poor sanitation in the country have contributed to over 800,000 deaths related to diarrhea alone (not including other illnesses related to water issues) (World Health Organization).

In another part of the world, in the mega-city of São Paulo, Brazil, residents go days at a time without water. How did this happen to a country with access to the Amazon River, industry, a bustling tourist industry and sandy beaches? The Amazon River, the world’s largest river by volume, supplies  Brazil its fresh water, yet due to urban growth, poor city planning, leaking water reservoirs, destruction of forest and wetlands, and pollution, there is a lack of safe water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene (Nations, 2015) . As a result, water is now being rationed and some residents may be allowed access to water only biweekly.

Unfortunately, the extent of water issues is not limited to merely a few, but is increasingly becoming a global issue impacting many—including the developed nations. Case in point, the western region of the United States of America, specifically California, has been experiencing increasing drought issues for years. In fact, it has gotten to the point that policy and regulations are being considered and implemented to limit use of water with fines for noncompliance.  It will be interesting to observe how the United States, who manages numerous water programs in developing nations, resolve this issue.  This is a nation of people who, for the most part, are used to having free access to water for not only basic needs, but also luxuries. And now many Americans may have to face not only regulations restricting their use of water for swimming pools, lush green lawns, washing cars, skiing, and other recreational activities, but they may also have to deal with the more serious issue of having affordable foods as the water shortage impacts the agriculture sector. It has already been estimated that California will lose $2.7 billion this year due to the current drought issues (U.C. Davis Research Project). In addition, they may have to deal with the possible increase of disease, such as West Nile Virus, and the difficulty of dealing with wildfires due to water shortages.

Of course there is much discourse regarding who or what is to blame for the impending water shortage in the US.  Is it the pollution distributed into the air from numerous factories, vehicles, and farms or is it just a natural occurrence which would occur regardless of human action? Is it archaic water regulations that have not kept up with the diminishing supply of water, or is it our disregard and misuse of what we think is a never-ending supply? Regardless, we are no longer hypothesizing about the lack of water. At least 40 million Americans are actually experiencing the reduced availability of water.

Now that the problem is no longer afar, but at our front door, what do we do?  This issue is not just an issue out west in the US. It is a global issue that will continue to worsen as the population of the earth increases. So now is the time for everyone, whether directly affected or not, to wake up and to encourage not just policy makers, but each of us to make behavioral changes and be more conscientious on our use and waste of this precious resource.

Guest Blog: The DevelopmentXChange Pitch Competition

Guest Blogger: Amanda Hirsch

Saving Lives at Birth, along with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), hosted DevelopmentXChange, the fifth annual pitch competition held by the partnership to call upon innovators from around to identify and scale up groundbreaking prevention and treatment approaches for pregnant women and newborns in poor, hard-to-reach communities.

Fifty-three finalists from the pool of innovators joined this year’s DevelopmentXChange in Washington, DC to participate in the final stage of the competition. They gathered to actively network their ideas with innovators, investors and partners, display their innovations in an open Marketplace, and compete for grants to make their innovations reality.

Amongst the 53 finalists, the first to present was a representative of the Pumani by 3rd Stone Design. Half of premature babies struggle to breath upon birth. This product expands upon the existing Bubble Continuous Positive Airway (bCPAP) technologies that are commonly used in the developed world to treat neonates with compromised respiratory systems by maintaining positive airway pressure during breathing, preventing airway collapse and improving oxygenation.

The Pumani, named after the Malawian term for “breathe restfully,” is as cheaper, easily-transportable version of the original bCPAP. The Pumani is currently being used by 700 clinical staff in 40 hospitals in Malawi and surrounding African countires. 2,000 patients have been treated with 170 Pumani devices to date and have seen survival rates of 64.6% with usage compared to rates of 23.5% from the use of oxygen alone. Creators of the Pumani hope to receive sufficient funds to manufacture hundreds more devices and to develop a sales and distribution team.

Next, innovators of Emory University pitched their Skin Immunization Microneedle Patch. Each year 1.5 million babies and children die of vaccine-preventable diseases. Low socioeconomic status, little-to-no access to healthcare facilities to receive vaccinations, and difficulty transporting and storing vaccines to remote and rural populations have severely impacted vaccination rates in hard-to-reach communities.

The vaccination patch, a small square covered in microneedles that will vaccinate a subject against one or multiple diseases within minutes is proposed to be the solution to this problem. The Skin Immunization Microneedle patch can be stored in unfavorable elements, transported easily, requires minimal storage space, and eliminates the burden of biohazard sharps. So far, the patch has successfully provoked immune responses to H1N1 and tetanus. Innovators of the Emory University team wish for funding to begin conducting human studies for the patch.

Third, innovators from the University of Toronto sought to address iron deficiency in pregnant women, particularly in Southeast Asia. Iron deficiency causes 150,000 maternal deaths each year. To address this problem, the Toronto teamed proposed food fortification- to fortify tea with iron. Tea was chosen to be fortified because it is the sole product that is universally purchased across Southeast Asia. People from all walks of life- rich, poor, urban, rural, must go to purchase tea.

Mimicking the iron fortification of salt which has cured one million people of anemia, it was proposed that iron be microencapsulated into tea that can be processed in the body. Innovators of the iron-fortified tea seek funds to work on managing the taste, distribution, and exploration of their product.

The remaining of the 53 innovators also presented at the DevelopmentXChange pitch competition. To learn more about the innovators, products, competition, and organization, visit http://www.savinglivesatbirth.net.

twitter photoAmanda Hirsch is a summer Global Health intern for APHA. She is starting her final undergraduate year at the GWU Milken Institute School of Public Health. Her passion for global health began in rural Honduras, and she is particularly interested in disparities in healthcare systems that affect the Latino community. She intends to pursue an MPH degree with a dual concentration in Community-Oriented Primary Care and Global Health. You can follow her on Twitter at @amandahirsch12.