Have you read the latest issue of our newsletter, Section Connection?

The latest issue of Section Connection, the IH Section e-newsletter, is now available!

You can find the latest issue of the newsletter here: 


In this edition, you will hear more about the different Annual Meeting events our section hosts; learn more about our Student Committee; and get up close and personal with IH section member – Dr. Idong Essiet-Gibson. We will share updates from the Global Health Mentoring Committee, the Climate Change and Health Working Group, the Communications Committee and Social Media Subcommittee, the Systems Science for Health Systems Strengthening Working Group and the Community Based Primary Healthcare Working Group.

We hope you continue to stay connected and involved with our section. See you in November in Philadelphia!

Global News Round Up

Politics & Policies

A new study by WHO, published in Lancet Global Health, found that investing $6 billion per year in eliminating hepatitis in 67 low- and middle-income countries would avert 4.5 million premature deaths by 2030, and more than 26 million deaths beyond that target date.

There isn’t a single country in the world with 100 per cent universal health coverage. All global health systems have room to improve. But UHC as it has been held up as a UN goal leaves much to be desired.

A new KFF online resource tracks more than 30 bills introduced in the current Congress that would affect global health policy.

Programs, Grants & Awards

The United States government announced US$45 million in funding to respond to the critical food security situation in the upcoming lean season between October 2019 and March 2020 in Zimbabwe.

There is a great deal of institutional interest among health professions students in joining global health programs, with more than 25% having participated during their training. However, when programs rely on short-term fixes to long-standing infrastructure and resource deficits, some of the world’s most vulnerable, poor patients can be exploited.

European University Alliance for Global Health has been launched with a press conference in Paris. Part of the European Universities alliances receiving funding by the EU Commission to collaborate across borders, the network is composed of five international partners.


Visceral leishmaniasis infects an estimated 300,000 people annually and causes 20,000 deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization.

The World Health Organization (WHO) considers antimicrobial resistance to be one of the 10 threats to global health in 2019. 

Malaria, one of the world’s leading killers, could be eradicated as early as 2050, according to a new report published by The Lancet Commission on malaria eradication.

Diseases & Disasters

Measles is proving fatal at an alarming rate, far faster than Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

The Bangladeshi government has confirmed another five deaths from dengue fever, bringing the total number of fatalities in the country since January to 23, the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) reported Tuesday.

Malaria has killed more than 1,800 people in Burundi this year, the UN’s humanitarian agency says, a death toll rivalling a deadly Ebola outbreak in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo.

Obesity is a growing problem in many countries around the world. Obesity is reaching further into Mexico and costing their citizens and healthcare system millions of dollars.


It is hard to get much of a reputation if nobody knows you’re around, and that has definitely been the case for mycoplasma genitalium, the tiny bacteria estimated to be more prevalent than the bug that causes gonorrhea but is almost completely off the public’s radar.

Technology designed to intercept online extremism is being deployed to tackle vaccine misinformation.

Environmental Health

Common ingredients in the cleaning sprays for your kitchen and bathroom make mice less fertile, suggesting the compounds could do the same to humans, according to a new study.

Ocean heat waves, which can push out fish, plankton and other aquatic life, are happening far more frequently than previously thought, according to a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The climate crisis represents the biggest threat to the future of global health over the next quarter of a century, according to a survey of top medical professionals.


Equity & Disparities

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has published a report, Examining Inequality, on how the world is doing. In short, it’s not great. It’s even worse if you are a girl.

The darkening clouds are ominous for many in this urban neighborhood in Kampala, promising rushing rainwaters stinking of human waste from overflowing septic tanks.


Women, Maternal, Neonatal & Children’s Health

UNICEF and the World Food Programme provide food and nutrition aid to North Korean children—but a lack of funds, fueled by political tension and the US-led strategy of pressure and isolation of North Korea, have limited their reach.

New Zealand’s government announced that it plans changes to the country’s abortion laws that would treat the procedure as a health issue rather than a crime.


IH Section Webinar 8/20: Insights from Managing a Health Systems Development Program (HSDP) Grant

Dr. Iyabo Obsanjo, the Co-Director for African Development at the College of William and Mary will discuss her involvement with a World Bank-funded Health System Development Project in Ogun State, Nigeria. She’ll share what worked and what didn’t from her perspective as the Commissioner for Health, in addition to describing areas where Health System development funding is lacking.

Date: Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Time: 11 AM – 12 PM ET

Register to attend here

This webinar is hosted by the APHA IH Section’s Health Systems Strengthening Group. The objective of the working group is to provide a venue for interested global health professionals to learn about systems sciences, collaborate around research and practice activities, and advocate for increased consideration of system sciences in education, practice, policy and evaluation for strengthening health systems. We welcome interested members (APHA membership is not a prerequisite) with expertise and/or interests in applying systems thinking approaches and methods to strengthen health systems, in both developing and developed countries. 

Find out more about the Health Systems Strengthening Group  

Happy World Breastfeeding Week!

Happy World Breastfeeding Week (8/1-8/7)! This year’s theme, “Empower parents, enable breastfeeding” is a particularly poignant reminder of how the U.S. government is doing neither for parents and infants entering at the southern border. It is critical to consider the effects of involuntary separation of breastfeeding mothers and their children.

There are short- and long-term physical, emotional, and economic consequences of abrupt discontinuation of lactation. Lactating individuals need to express milk to relieve the pain and fullness in their breasts to avoid plugged ducts and mastitis, a breast infection requiring medical attention. If there is no provision of time, space, and privacy for regularly expressing milk, those individuals will gradually lose their milk supply. Shortened, suboptimal lactation increases risks for breast and ovarian cancers, and metabolic and other diseases and costs $302 billion globally [1].

Infants who no longer receive human milk need a substitute, which will be inherently nutritionally inferior to human milk and cannot provide them the immunologic protection they received from their mothers’ milk [2]. Those infants will need to learn how to feed from a bottle, which may cause distress, can introduce bacteria, and may teach them to ignore satiety cues [3], increasing their risk for overeating as they get older.

Emotionally, the parent–infant bond is severed with involuntary separation. Breastfeeding is not just a feeding method, but also provides an infant with temperature regulation and comfort. We have witnessed maternal distress from this inhumane practice [4]; it is likely that an infant’s distress would be extreme.

On top of the life changing health effects of abrupt discontinuation of breastfeeding, the most egregious offense may be the negation of these individuals’ rights to breastfeed. They were feeding their children optimally until a poor substitute was imposed upon them for political reasons. Now those children have higher risks of infections and chronic disease, from the moment they were taken from their parents and for the rest of their lives.

There have been many discussions about the traumatic effects of parent-child separation but we have not seen or heard a discussion of effects due to abrupt cessation of lactation and breastfeeding. Those effects provide more compelling reasons to end this inhumane practice immediately.

Guest Blog Written By: Jennifer Yourkavitch, MPH, PhD, IBCLC – International Health Section Breastfeeding Forum Liaison, APHA and Research Scientist, University of North Carolina, Greensboro; Whitney P. Witt, PhD, MPH – Chair, Maternal and Child Health Section, APHA and Inaugural Dean and Professor, College of Health, Lehigh University; Briana Jegier, PhD – Chair, Breastfeeding Forum, APHA and Associate Professor, Health Services Administration, D’Youville College


1.      Lancet. (2016). Series on Breastfeeding. http://thelancet.com/series/breastfeeding. Accessed July 31, 2018.

2.      Mannel R., Martens P., & Walker M. (eds.). Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, 2013.

3.      Li R., Fein S.B. & Grummer-Strawn LM. (2010). Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants? Pediatrics125(6).

4.      CNN. June 14, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/06/12/us/immigration-separated-children-southern-border/index.html. Accessed July 29, 2018.

Outcomes and Interventions for Sexually Transmitted Infections in sub-Saharan Africa

By Samantha Dulak BS and Heather F. McClintock PhD MSPH MSW

This is the second part of a IH Blog series featured this summer, Sexually Transmitted Infections in sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants, Outcomes, and Interventions.

Part II: Outcomes and Interventions for Sexually Transmitted Infections in sub-Saharan Africa

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a significant public health burden globally and are a leading cause of mortality in lower middle income countries (LMICs). In 2016, there were 988,000 women infected with syphilis worldwide, resulting in 350,000 deaths and delivery complications (Korenromp, Rowley, Alonso, et al., 2019). Human papillomavirus (HPV), an incurable STI, leads to over half a million new cases of cervical cancer every year (Bray, Ferlay, Soerjomataram, et al., 2018). Cervical cancer can be the result of other factors, however, in 90% of all cervical cancer cases that resulted in death, the cancer was caused by HPV (WHO, 2018). Of the 1.8 million newly diagnosed HIV infections each year, 940,000 individuals died globally from AIDS related factors (UNAIDS, 2019a). Unfortunately, a third of those deaths (302,700) are among females aged 15-49 living in sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS, 2019b). Higher rates of complications are found in sub-Saharan Africa because of inadequate clinician training, delayed diagnosis, and limited care seeking behaviors (Mayaud & Mabey, 2004). STI surveillance systems are absent or poorly functioning in Africa causing unreliable data on the prevalence of these infections.

STIs are common in low resource settings and their impact can be catastrophic on the lives of individuals. The list of potential complications is extensive. Untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia are associated with the development of arthritis, hepatitis B with liver cancer, and syphilis with central nervous system disorders (Aral, Over, Manhart, & Holmes, 2006). While all individuals are at risk, women and children are disproportionately affected by a greater burden of disability, as assessed by disability adjusted life years. Women suffering without treatment can experience chronic pelvic and abdominal inflammation leading to infertility, spontaneous abortions, and many adverse pregnancy outcomes (Chesson, Mayaud, & Aral, 2017). 

International attention on STI outcomes is imperative to reducing the incidence of STIs not only in sub-Saharan Africa, but globally. Most attention has focused on HIV due to the public health crisis we are experiencing now. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reported that Africa has the highest burden of STIs compared to all other continents (Lewis, 2011). The UNAIDS 2018 report on the global AIDS epidemic found that there are 37.9 million people living with AIDS in the world and 20.6 million of them live in eastern and southern Africa (UNAIDS, 2019a). 

Prevention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa place a heavy emphasis on sexual health education. A meta analysis of 51 papers reported that while school-based sexual health education significantly increased condom usage, there was no significant effect on the incidence of STIs (Sani, Abraham, Denford, & Ball, 2016). This information is promising, though. School aged children are experiencing positive behavior changes through the use of physical protection methods. Some studies even report a change of attitude towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (Paul-Ebhohimhen, Poobalan, & van Teijlingen, 2008). However, a focus on at-risk groups is missing. Sex workers, men who have sex with men, and intravenous drug users all have high susceptability to contracting an STI and greater attention needs to be directed towards prevention in these populations to reduce the incidence of STIs. 

To address the vast number of cases of cervical cancer caused by HPV, many sub-Saharan countries now qualify for assistance from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. As of 2018, eight countries have HPV vaccine programs for school aged children, with pilot programs implemented in nearly 16 additional countries (Black and Richmond, 2018). Data for all 8 countries is not public as of now, but of the five countries with available data, the success rate for at least one dose of the vaccine is 83% (Black and Richmond, 2018). Rwanda was the only country to successfully complete three doses, covering 98.7% of girls (Black and Richmond, 2018).

From a global perspective, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to ensure access to sexual and reproductive care and end the AIDS epidemic by 2030 (UN General Assembly, 2015). Primary prevention strategies have become popular among many countries to promote these goals. In 2018, the WHO reported on global STI surveillance, indicating that 44% of countries have HPV vaccines in their immunization programs (WHO, 2018). To reach those who are not benefiting from immunization initiatives, the 2016 Global STI Strategy, along with strategies for HIV and viral hepatitis, fight to meet the SDG 2030 agenda (WHO, 2018). The Global STI Strategy focuses on creating affordable interventions for at-risk individuals and adolescents in all countries. These plans are financed and delivered by promoting universal health care coverage to keep costs low (WHO, 2018). Additionally, the Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has improved national monitoring of antimicrobial resistance to gonorrhea in order to provide stronger data for new treatment research (Wi et al., 2017).

Samantha Dulak BS

Ms. Dulak was a biology major and global public health minor at Arcadia University. She has a strong interest in nutrition as well as maternal and child health. She now hopes to attend graduate school for public health and pediatrics.

Heather F. McClintock PhD MSPH MSW 

Dr. McClintock is an IH Section Member and Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences at Arcadia University. She earned her Master of Science in Public Health from the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. McClintock received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Pennsylvania with a focus on health behavior and promotion. Her research broadly focuses on the prevention, treatment, and management of chronic disease and disability globally. Recent research aims to understand and reduce the burden of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to completing her doctorate she served as a Program Officer at the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and a Senior Project Manager in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania. At the University of Pennsylvania she led several research initiatives that involved improving patient compliance and access to quality healthcare services including the Spectrum of Depression in Later Life and Integrating Management for Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Studies.


Aral, S.O., Over, M., Manhart, L., Holmes, K.K. (2006). Sexually Transmitted Infections. In Jamison, D.T., Breman, J.G., Measham, A.R, Alleyne, G., Claeson, M., Evans, D.B., Jha, P., Mills, A., Musgrove, P. (Eds), Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, second edition. 311–30. Washington (DC): World Bank and Oxford University Press.

Black, E., Richmond, R. (2018) Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Advantages and Challenges of HPV Vaccination. Vaccines, 6(3), 61. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030061

Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R.L., Torre, L.A., Ahmedin, J. (2018). Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68: 394–424.

Chesson, H.W., Mayaud, P., & Aral, S.O. (2017). Sexually Transmitted Infections: Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Prevention. In Holmes, K.K., Bertozzi, S., Bloom, B.R., & Jha, P. (Eds.), Major Infectious Diseases, third edition. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank.

Mayaud, P., Mabey, D. (2004). Approaches to the Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Developing Countries: Old Problems and Modern Challenges. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(3), 174–182. doi: 10.1136/sti.2002.004101

Korenromp, E.L., Rowley, J., Alonso, M., Mello, M.B., Wijesooriya, N.S., et al. (2019) Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes—Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012. PLOS One, 14(2): e0211720.

Lewis, D.A. (2011). HIV/sexually transmitted infection epidemiology, management and control in the IUSTI Africa region: focus on sub-Saharan Africa Sexually Transmitted Infections. BMJ, 87(2), ii10-ii13. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2011-050178

Paul-Ebhohimhen, V.A., Poobalan, A., van Teijlingen, E.R. (2008). A systematic review of school-based sexual health interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Public Health, 8(4). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-4

Sani, A.S., Abraham, C., Denford, S., & Ball, S. (2016). School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 16, 1069. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3715-4

UN General Assembly. (2015). Transforming our world : the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 16 July 20219 from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/health/

UNAIDS. (2019a). Global HIV & AIDS statistics — 2019 fact sheet. Retrieved 16 July 2019 from https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet

UNAIDS. (2019b). In sub-Saharan Africa, three in five new HIV infections among 15–19-year-olds are among girls. Retrieved 15 July 2019 from https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/infographics/women_girls_hiv_sub_saharan_africa

Wi, T., Lahra, M. M., Ndowa, F., Bala, M., Dillon, J. R., Ramon-Pardo, P., . . . Unemo, M. (2017). Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action. PLoS Medicine, 14(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002344

The World Health Organization [WHO]. (2018). Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. Retrieved 15 July 2019 from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/277258/9789241565691-eng.pdf?ua=1.