APHA launches new Spanish-language resource hub at COVIDGuia.org for public, policymakers

APHA curates COVID-19 tips and information geared toward Hispanic/Latino communities

APHA is compiling the latest evidence-based information on COVID-19 into one, easy-to-navigate spot.

COVIDGuia.org is a Spanish-language resource that shares up-to-date, science-based information and tools from credible sources. Topics include guidance on reopening, personal and community prevention tips, workplace safety guidance, and recommendations for safe voting and returning to school. It is the sister site to COVIDGuidance.org, an English-language site that was launched last month.

“Every day, we’re being hit with mixed messages and misinformation about COVID-19, and that’s a real danger to our ability to contain the virus,” said José Ramón Fernández-Peña, MD, MPA, president-elect of the American Public Health Association. “We launched COVIDGuia.org to help everyone easily find information that’s based on sound science and public health recommendations.”

The compilation of resources developed in collaboration with the Latinx COVID-19 Task Force is designed to help communities, individuals and policymakers to make informed decisions about COVID-19. The resource organizes rapidly updated guidance and recommendations from trusted sources, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and Johns Hopkins University.

Access and bookmark the new resource page at COVIDGuia.org.

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The American Public Health Association champions the health of all people and all communities. We strengthen the public health profession. We speak out for public health issues and policies backed by science. We are the only organization that combines a nearly 150-year perspective, a broad-based member community and the ability to influence federal policy to improve the public’s health. Learn more at www.apha.org.

Integrated Mental Health Care

This is the fifth part of an IH Blog series, Global Mental Health: Burden, Initiatives and Special Topics.

In the context of a pandemic, access to and the quality of mental health care is paramount. Effective and feasible delivery models for mental health care service provision are critical for meeting growing demands for care. Many new and innovative models have been proposed and integrated approaches have been identified as potentially effective strategies to address this growing need. The goal of integrated mental health care is to enhance accessible, affordable, cost-effective mental health services for individuals. There are a range of different integrated care models including collaborative care, hub-based systems, and patient-centered medical homes. Collaborative care, for example, is an integrated care program that combines behavioral health care management and consultations with mental health specialists in the primary care setting. 

Mental health care provision in the context of primary care settings is important because primary care is the first point of contact for patients in the healthcare system. The Declaration of Alma-Ata, adopted at the 1978 International Conference on Primary Health Care organized by UNICEF and WHO, identified primary health care as a central function of health systems and the key to attaining the goal of ‘Health for All.’ Forty years later, at the Global Conference on Primary Health Care, primary care was re-emphasized as the most effective way to sustainably solve today’s health challenges, partly through the provision of integrated services. The promotion, maintenance and improvement of mental health is explicitly included in the 2018 Declaration as a service that primary health care should provide to patients. 

Mental illness is frequently comorbid with a long list of chronic illnesses and disorders. Depression is common among people who have cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS, and rheumatoid arthritis, among other chronic illnesses. Some disorders increase the risk of depression. At the early stages of Parkinson’s disease dopamine decreases which can cause depression. Chronic stress, whether it be illness-related or social stress, can trigger anxiety and depression. Researchers have found high levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, to disrupt neuroplasticity in brain structures that are functionally abnormal in depression, such as the hippocampus. Medication used to treat certain chronic disorders can lead to depressive symptoms. Nifedipine, used in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions, has been linked with the induction of depression. Even drugs used to treat and prevent asthma have been found to have psychiatric side effects. Bronchodilators mimic adrenaline and trigger the body’s sympathetic “fight or flight” nervous system response. This response causes one to feel anxious and panicky. Montelukast is another asthma medication that has neuropsychiatric side-effects in children and has recently elicited the FDA to require a stronger box warning of the side-effect. 

Conversely, adults with serious mental illnesses are at greater risk for chronic physical illnesses and other medical conditions, such as stroke and cardiovascular disease, than the general population. One explanation for this association is that individuals with mental illness can have a harder time caring for themselves, seeking care, eating well, exercising and taking medication as prescribed. Scientists have found that depression increases inflammation, reduces heart rate variability, and disturbs the metabolic system

Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda have strengthened integrated mental health care through the World Health Organization’s mhGAP program. Through the mhGAP program, primary care providers are trained to identify and manage mental disorders, prescribe psychotropic medication, and provide evidence-based psychosocial interventions. For integrated mental health care to fully flourish, change needs to come from within the medical sector, as well as outside of it, in the policy sector. The Netherlands, since the early 2000s, has worked to integrate mental health care into a number of health care settings, including hospitals and community health centers. They also introduced an innovative bundled payment system in 2007 to promote and incentivize integrated care. 

There are many challenges inherent in implementing integrated care models. Countries face resource constraints including workforce shortages. Primary care providers can be trained to provide mental health care, but they must be supported by secondary mental health professionals who are the experts in their field. Finally, to ensure optimal success and sustainability, countries must enact legislation that fosters the development of infrastructure that supports integrated mental health care. 

About the Authors:

Screen Shot 2020-03-31 at 7.52.50 PMElena Schatell MPH (c) MMS (c)

Elena Schatell is a current student at Arcadia University enrolled in the Dual Master of Public Health/Master of Medical Science in Physician Assistant Program. She aims to promote public health in underserved communities as a future physician assistant. Her current public health interests include access to mental health services, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the relationship between faith and mental health. She has interned at the National Alliance for Mental Illness (NAMI) national office in Arlington, Virginia, working closely with the Advocacy and Public Policy team on conducting research on service barriers and state mental health policy. During her time at NAMI, she also authored articles for the Advocate magazine and blog.

McClintock.PictureDr. Heather F. McClintock PhD MSPH MSW

Dr. McClintock is an IH Section Member and Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences at Arcadia University. She earned her Master of Science in Public Health from the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. McClintock received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Pennsylvania with a focus on health behavior and promotion. Her research broadly focuses on the prevention, treatment, and management of chronic disease and disability globally. Recent research aims to understand and reduce the burden of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to completing her doctorate she served as a Program Officer at the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and a Senior Project Manager in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania. At the University of Pennsylvania she led several research initiatives that involved improving patient compliance and access to quality healthcare services including the Spectrum of Depression in Later Life Study and Integrating Management for Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Study.

 

 

 

 

Take action now: Defend the World Health Organization

Sent on behalf of APHA’s IH Section Leadership

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Yesterday, the Trump administration notified Congress that it is formally withdrawing the United States from the World Health Organization amid the coronavirus pandemic.

750 scholars and experts in global public health, U.S. constitutional law, and international law and relations wrote to Congress in opposition to U.S. withdrawal from WHO.

https://oneill.law.georgetown.edu/letter-to-congress-on-who-withdrawal-from-public-health-law-and-international-relations-leaders/

Make your voice heard and oppose this decision.

Will you please:

– Use this letter and add your own commentary on letters to the editor, OpEds, social media, blogs, calling radio and TV talk shows etc. If you have an organizational social media presence we would love to see it pushed out far and wide–and if you have connections to others with wide reach please engage them.

– Please also contact your congressional representatives’ offices voicing your opposition to this action and call for a reinstatement of US funds and that the US remain within the WHO. You can share this letter directly with them. To find your local elected officials, click here: https://www.usa.gov/elected-officials

Many thanks,

APHA’s IH Section Leaders

Global Mental Health Agenda and Pandemic Preparedness

This is the fourth part of a IH Blog series, Global Mental Health: Burden, Initiatives and Special Topics.

Part IV – Global Mental Health Agenda and Pandemic Preparedness

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed a need to improve preparedness for mental health care services provision in the context of pandemics. The mental health burden associated with COVID-19 and prior pandemics is pervasive, highlighting a critical need for preparedness plans to incorporate a mental health response. As discussed in our previous blog, there are initiatives related to global mental health and COVID-19 that are being implemented, but a fully adaptive and comprehensive approach is needed to mitigate mental health consequences.

The agenda and priority setting of international governing bodies provides the foundation for establishing and implementing comprehensive preparedness plans and approaches. For the first time in 2015, the United Nations (UN) established mental health as a priority by including substance abuse and mental health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A total of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were created and adopted by all UN Member States. Mental health is specifically a part of SDG 3: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.” Within Goal 3, two targets are directly related to mental health. Target 3.4 states: “by 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.” Target 3.5 focuses on drug addiction, proposing that countries: “strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.” 

In 2013, the World Health Assembly published a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 in response to the growing burden of mental illness. In the action plan’s foreword, Director-General Dr. Margaret Chan stated that mental health is a fundamental part of WHO’s definition of health. The action plan was extended to 2030 at the 72nd World Health Assembly to align with the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The plan’s framework is intended to be adapted at the regional level in order to address regional priorities and circumstances. 

With this action plan, all WHO Member States committed to contributing efforts to meet the global targets around improving mental health. The plan includes four objectives around effective leadership and governance, service provision in community-based settings, promotion and prevention, and strengthening research. Each objective is broken down into specific, measurable targets and their respective indicators. This structure allows countries to monitor progress and impact and report these data back to WHO to monitor progress and impact. The full action plan, published in 2013, can be read here.  This article by the Lancet, also published in 2013, summarizes the plan. 

WHO has created practical tools that national authorities can use to improve mental health service resilience during and after public health emergencies such as the WHO Recovery Toolkit. These resources can help national authorities develop or update national pandemic preparedness plans. Even though there has been increased prioritization of global mental health by the UN and WHO, there is significant work to be done on integrating mental health into emergency preparedness and pandemic planning. 

Given the current global agenda, the revision and implementation of preparedness planning that supports care for mental health is critical. With revised multisector pandemic preparedness plans that incorporate new and emerging evidence, we could lessen the lingering mental health effects of future pandemics. A recently published JAMA article highlights the need for prevention and early intervention to proactively prepare for an increase in mental health conditions from the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors mention the necessity of having mechanisms in place for surveillance, reporting and intervention, as well as bolstering mental health systems in preparation for increased service demands.

About the Authors:

Screen Shot 2020-03-31 at 7.52.50 PMElena Schatell MPH (c) MMS (c)

Elena Schatell is a current student at Arcadia University enrolled in the Dual Master of Public Health/Master of Medical Science in Physician Assistant Program. She aims to promote public health in underserved communities as a future physician assistant. Her current public health interests include access to mental health services, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the relationship between faith and mental health. She has interned at the National Alliance for Mental Illness (NAMI) national office in Arlington, Virginia, working closely with the Advocacy and Public Policy team on conducting research on service barriers and state mental health policy. During her time at NAMI, she also authored articles for the Advocate magazine and blog.

McClintock.PictureDr. Heather F. McClintock PhD MSPH MSW

Dr. McClintock is an IH Section Member and Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences at Arcadia University. She earned her Master of Science in Public Health from the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. McClintock received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Pennsylvania with a focus on health behavior and promotion. Her research broadly focuses on the prevention, treatment, and management of chronic disease and disability globally. Recent research aims to understand and reduce the burden of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to completing her doctorate she served as a Program Officer at the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and a Senior Project Manager in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania. At the University of Pennsylvania she led several research initiatives that involved improving patient compliance and access to quality healthcare services including the Spectrum of Depression in Later Life Study and Integrating Management for Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Study.

Racism is an ongoing public health crisis that needs our attention now

Statement from APHA Executive Director Georges Benjamin, MD

“I can’t breathe.”

With those last words, George Floyd, an unarmed, handcuffed black man, died after being pinned down by a white Minneapolis police officer, an atrocious action that has sparked outrage throughout the nation.

We raise our voices, too, horrified, stunned and angered.

We are appalled but are not surprised by the despicable way Floyd was killed. We weep for the man, his family and a country that continues to allow this to happen. We also join in the chorus for justice and ring the alarm to all Americans. Racism is a longstanding systemic structure in this country that must be dismantled, through brutally honest conversations, policy changes and practices.

Racism attacks people’s physical and mental health. And racism is an ongoing public health crisis that needs our attention now!

We see discrimination every day in all aspects of life, including housing, education, the criminal justice system and employment. And it is amplified during this pandemic as communities of color face inequities in everything from a greater burden of COVID-19 cases to less access to testing, treatment and care.

Americans cannot be silent about this. As Martin Luther King, Jr. observed, “The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people.”

We refuse to be silent, and we call for you to join us in our advocacy for a healthier nation. At the American Public Health Association, every moment of our waking hours is poured into finding better, more healthful lives for all, so everyone has a chance to breathe. It’s our life-blood.

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APHA champions the health of all people and all communities. We strengthen the public health profession. We speak out for public health issues and policies backed by science. We are the only organization that combines a nearly 150-year perspective, a broad-based member community and the ability to influence federal policy to improve the public’s health. Visit us at http://www.apha.org.


APHA’s Racism and Health Resources

APHA’s Racism and Health page: 

https://www.apha.org/topics-and-issues/health-equity/racism-and-health (you can tweet/share the Alias, which is apha.org/racism

APHA’s new webinar series, Advancing Racial Equity: 

https://apha.org/events-and-meetings/webinars/racial-equity (also has an Alias you can share, which is apha.org/racial-equity)

APHA’s Health Equity page: 

https://apha.org/topics-and-issues/health-equity

APHA’s COVID-19 and Equity page:

 https://apha.org/topics-and-issues/communicable-disease/coronavirus/equity

Public Health Newswire health equity posts: 

http://publichealthnewswire.org/?cat=health-equity