A Call to Action: Addressing The Ukraine and Ethiopia Wars

Dear Colleagues,

A group of concerned public health professionals has mobilized to raise awareness about and urge expedited advocacy action to end the Ukraine war and serve as a reminder of the ongoing Ethiopian war and the war crimes and crimes against humanity underway in that country since November 2020–in both armed conflicts leading to attacks on health facilities and healthcare and aid workers, numerous deaths, internal and external displacement, gender-based violence, and dire famine. We seek your assistance in advocating with your U.S. House and Senate representatives as described in the attached Call to Action containing action recommendations and related policies of APHA and the World Federation of Public Health Associations. In addition, attached are several recent UNICEF statements on Children in War, Lancet articles pertinent to extant conditions that justify concerted and collaborative action at this time, and a summary of a recent Medical University of South Carolina Symposium on war as a public health crisis with speakers’ abstracts covering wars in progress throughout the world.

BACKGROUND

A ‘team’ of individual American Public Health Association (APHA) members from the Global Maternal and Child Health Network and International Section, including  representing a wide range of public health, healthcare, human rights, law, ethics, peace building, higher education, research, public policy and international development professionals, seek your advocacy support to end the Russian Federation invasion of Ukraine and comparable war crimes and crimes against humanity in Ethiopia. We serve in a range of capacities in APHA Sections and similar professional/scientific associations. We contribute our voices and endorsement of recommendations stated herein as individual professionals, not as the official policy of those organizations for which we volunteer. We have drawn our actions, however, from consensus-derived, adopted APHA policies that speak to mitigating and addressing the cross-sectoral, public health manifestations of war.

Thank you in advance for the myriad of efforts underway by so many, as well as for your support and advocacy actions to address the dire, man-made armed conflict circumstances facing innocent children, women, vulnerable populations, and all the people standing up to those conducting destructive attacks for immoral and inhumane purposes.

Consortium of Universities of Global Health Conference

Are you interested in global health and public health education? If you haven’t already registered for the Consortium of Universities of Global Health upcoming conference, you should look into their 2022 Virtual Conference, “Healthy People, Healthy Planet, and Social Justice” from March 28th to April 1st. https://www.cugh2022.org

News Round Up

World Population:  7,925,799,538           

Politics & Policies

December 27, 2021: The UN could have been forgiven for saying ‘I told you so’ when it became clear in November that a fast-spreading COVID-19 variant, named after the Greek letter Omicron, was a cause for concern, seemingly spreading far more quickly than the dominant Delta variant.  But whilst the fears were understandable, the arrival of Omicron shouldn’t have been a surprise, given the consistent warnings from the UN that new mutations were inevitable, given the failure of the international community to ensure that everyone, not just the citizens of wealthy countries, are vaccinated. https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/12/1108442 

January 1, 2022: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed flaws in the ability of our global health architecture to prevent and respond to pandemic threats. In a momentous evolution, which may have gone unnoticed amid other debates, the global fund made pandemic preparedness and response part of its evolving mandate upon adopting its new strategy in November. https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-why-the-global-fund-must-take-on-pandemic-preparedness-102385 

Programs, Conferences, Grants, Awards & Events

January 20, 2022: Indonesia will push for the creation of a new global health agency while the country holds the presidency of the G20, President Joko Widodo said Thursday at the virtual Davos forum. https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20220120-indonesia-to-push-for-new-global-health-agency-president-says 

Historical, Reports, Documents, Data & Indexes

World Population Growth: https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth

January 21, 2022: Weekly U.S, Influenza Surveillance Report: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm 

The 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 Virus): https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html

The sum of mortality and morbidity is referred to as the ‘burden of disease’ and can be measured by a metric called ‘Disability Adjusted Life Years‘ (DALYs). DALYs are measuring lost health and are a standardized metric that allow for direct comparisons of disease burdens of different diseases across countries, between different populations, and over time. The first ‘Global Burden of Disease’ (GBD) was GBD 1990 and the DALY metric was prominently featured in the World Bank’s 1993 World Development Report. https://ourworldindata.org/burden-of-disease

State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for Annual 2021: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/202113

Click to access the USAID digital strategy 2020-2024

Research

Tuberculosis Research: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis

December 8, 2020: The global HIV/AIDS scientific community has begun to hail the dawn of ‘the End of AIDS’ with widespread anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and dramatic declines in AIDS-related mortality. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1851743 

January 4, 2022: After more than four decades of basic research and clinical trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the MALARIA vaccine RTS,S for widespread use among children living in malaria endemic areas. https://www.jci.org/articles/view/156588 

January 18, 2022: In a new study of the ZIKA VIRUS, Northwestern University scientists have discovered a key mechanism used by the virus to evade the antiviral response of the cell it is attacking. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/01/220118154849.htm 

January 22, 2022: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (AMR) is a major cause of death globally, with a burden likely to be higher than that of HIV or malaria, according to the most comprehensive assessment of bacterial AMR to date published in The Lancet. The data presented in this analysis are striking: in 2019, the deaths of 4·95 million people were associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. 1·27 million deaths were directly caused by AMR. For the first time, the study provides estimates for 204 countries and territories, as well as data for the regional impacts of AMR. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00091-5/fulltext 

February 1, 2022: A computational study shows that dozens of mutations help the virus’ spike protein evade antibodies that target SARS-CoV-2. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220201143956.htm 

Diseases & Disasters

December 14, 2021: At today’s WHO COVID-19 press conference, the WHO Director-General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, stated that Omicron is in at least 77 nations and is spreading faster than any prior COVID variant.  https://www.idsociety.org/science-speaks-blog/2021/how-is-omicron-outcompeting-delta-so-quickly-six-possibilities-to-consider/ 

December 23, 2021: In 2021, nine countries in the WHO African Region (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic (CAR), Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and Republic of Congo,) reported human laboratory confirmed cases of yellow fever (YF) in areas that are at high risk for the disease and have a history of YF transmission and outbreaks. https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/yellow-fever—west-and-central-africa 

January 11, 2022: The United States reported 1.35 million new coronavirus infections on Monday, according to a Reuters tally, the highest daily total for any country in the world as the spread of the highly contagious Omicron variant showed no signs of slowing. https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/us-reports-least-11-mln-covid-cases-day-shattering-global-record-2022-01-11/ 

January 14, 2022: The Republic of Botswana has been in the news recently for being the first nation in the world to detect the omicron variant of COVID-19 – a testament to the rigor of the country’s virus sequencing efforts. While perhaps less visible, Botswana also made news recently for being the first country with a high HIV burden to effectively eliminate the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2022-01-14/what-botswana-can-teach-the-world-about-solving-a-health-crisis 

January 15, 2022: Nations around the planet are making a subtle but consequential pivot in their war against the coronavirus: crushing the virus is no longer the strategy. Many countries are just hoping for a draw.  It’s a strategic retreat, signaled in overt and subtle ways from Washington to Madrid to Pretoria, South Africa, to Canberra, Australia. Notably, few countries today outside of China — which is still locking down cities — cling a to “zero-covid” strategy. https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2022/01/15/living-with-the-virus/ 

January 16, 2022: When the first consignment of COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Rumbek, the capital of Lakes State in South Sudan, WHO State Polio Officer Dr. Jiel Jiel was prepared. In support of the Ministry of Health, and in collaboration with partners, he had been working for weeks to help coordinate the vaccine rollout, using skills gained from working to eradicate polio. https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/polio-team-s-support-for-covid-19-vaccination-demonstrates-their-value-for-global-health 

January 20, 2022: More than 1.2 million people died worldwide in 2019 from infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics, according to the largest study of the issue to date. This is more than the annual death toll from malaria or Aids.  Poorer countries are worst affected but antimicrobial resistance threatens everyone’s health, the report says. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-60058120

Technology 

January 12, 2022: In India, only 1% to 8% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed in the early, stage 1 period of the disease, compared with 60% to 70% in the United States.  NIRAMAI Health Analytix, a startup technology company based in India, has developed a hand-held device to screen for breast cancer. https://www.devex.com/news/how-technology-can-revolutionize-women-s-health-care-102411 

January 12, 2022: Vaccines are powerful in preventing serious illness and death from COVID-19, including from the omicron variant. But, to save as many lives as possible, the world needs other prevention strategies and effective treatments. The FDA recently authorized one, a pill called molnupiravir, developed by Ridgeback Biotherapeutics and Merck. A second antiviral pill from Pfizer, called paxlovid, also has been authorized.        https://sph.unc.edu/sph-news/the-pills-to-fight-covid-19/ 

Environmental Health 

January 19, 2022: Not everyone has access to health-sustaining fuel sources, creating a crisis of “energy poverty,” where lack of access to modern energy sources is driving three billion people worldwide to wood, dung, charcoal, or other solid fuels for cooking and heating. https://www.ehn.org/energy-justice-2656210086/saving-lives-through-reduced-solid-fuel-use

Equity & Disparities 

March 26, 2021: The pandemic has been responsible for an outbreak of violence and hate directed against Asians around the world, blaming them for the spread of COVID-19. During this surge in attacks, the perpetrators have made their motives clear, taunting their victims with declarations like, “You have the Chinese Virus, go back to China!” and assaulting them and spitting on them. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/03/26/980480882/why-pandemics-give-birth-to-hate-from-black-death-to-covid-19 

October 8, 2021: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, analyses of federal, state, and local data have shown that people of color (POC) have experienced a disproportionate burden of cases and deaths. https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/issue-brief/covid-19-cases-and-deaths-by-race-ethnicity-current-data-and-changes-over-time/ 

January 7, 2022: Vaccine Equity and Global Economic Recovery https://www.cfr.org/event/vaccine-equity-and-global-economic-recovery 

Women, Maternal, Neonatal & Children’s Health

December 20, 2021: A new study, the largest of its kind to date, finds the first genetic causes of sudden unexplained death in children (SUDC).                https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/12/211220190653.htm

January 3, 2022: An olfactory receptor typically associated with the sense of smell may also trigger breast cancer cells to metastasize through a signaling pathway to the brain, bones and lung. Future research could potentially lead to an inhibitor of OR5B21 to prevent cellular invasion and metastasis, thus prolonging the lives of breast cancer patients. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/01/220103145440.htm

January 26, 2022: A personal story about the impact of the “Everyone will get COVID” mentality on families with immunocompromised children with disabilities. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/01/26/1075549754/covid-disabled-immunocompromised

January 21, 2022: Pediatricians, as the clinicians most intensively trained and experienced in children’s health, are the natural leaders of child primary health care within the medical home. The American Academy of Pediatrics encourages policymakers to include pediatricians when they are crafting decisions that affect children. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/news/Pages/Pediatricians-Key-in-Policy-Decisions-That-Affects-Children-.aspx

Humanitarian, Nonprofits, Foundations & NGOs

October 21, 2021: Earlier this month, the U.S. pharmaceutical company Merck announced that it was seeking emergency use authorization for a new drug, molnupiravir, to treat mild to moderate cases of COVID-19, after reporting positive results in a Phase III trial. It’s a milestone in the world’s ongoing fight against the virus because, if approved, it would be the first novel antiviral COVID-19 treatment in oral form. https://www.gatesfoundation.org/ideas/articles/molnupiravir-covid-19-drug-access

January 6, 2022: JTF-Bravo medics perform Guatemala global health engagement. https://www.southcom.mil/MEDIA/NEWS-ARTICLES/Article/2891024/jtf-bravo-medics-perform-guatemala-global-health-engagement/ 

News Round Up

World population:  7,919,624,238

Politics & Policies 

December 1st—Member states of the World Health Organization are banding together to make a plan to deal with future pandemics like the COVID-19 outbreak.  The World Health Assembly, the WHO’s decision-making body, voted to draft a “convention, agreement or other international instrument” on preventing, preparing for and responding to future pandemics.  The Special Session was only the second-ever since WHO’s founding in 1948.   https://www.mprnews.org/story/2021/12/01/npr-who-member-states-will-work-on-a-global-agreement-to-deal-with-future-pandemics 

December 9th—The world’s overall performance on the GHS Index score slipped to 38.9 (out of 100) in 2021, from a score of 40.2 in the GHS Index, 2019. This, even as infectious diseases are expected to have the greatest impact on the global economy in the next decade. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/world-unprepared-for-future-pandemics-global-health-security-index-2021-80611 

December 9th—South Korea ranked ninth in a 2021 Global Health Security Index report released on Wednesday.  The report, jointly by Johns Hopkins University and the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a nonprofit global security organization, measured the capacities of countries to see how well they are prepared for future health emergencies.  Top on the overall list of 195 countries was the U.S., followed by Australia and Finland.  The report says all countries remain “dangerously unprepared” to meet future epidemic and pandemic threats which could be more devastating than COVID-19. https://www.arirang.com/News/News_View.asp?nseq=289126

December 13th—WHO’s total budget for 2022 to 2023 is over $6 billion, with member states contributing 16% of the total.  A debate among member states around a contentious proposal to increase their dues by over $1 billion by 2029 will take place this week. https://www.devex.com/news/german-diplomat-expects-challenging-debates-on-who-funding-increase-102310

December 17th—The G7 emphasized the importance of getting booster vaccinations out and an emphasis on nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI). https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/586279-g7-health-leaders-omicron-biggest-current-threat-to-global-health

December 20th—It has been a year of colossal efforts in global health.  Countries battled COVID-19, which claimed more lives in 2021 than in 2020, while struggling to keep other health services running.  Health and care workers have borne the lion’s share of these efforts but often received little recognition or reward.  Life-saving COVID-19 vaccines, tests and treatments were rolled out, but overwhelmingly in the richest countries, leaving many populations unprotected, especially in lower-income countries.  Across other health areas, from diabetes to dementia, there have been both setbacks and hard-won successes. https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/10-key-global-health-moments-from-2021 

December 22nd—Will 2022 be the year Covid starts to settle down, to show signs of being more endemic, less pandemic? Some experts think so — especially if the Omicron variant infects huge swaths of people worldwide. https://www.statnews.com/2021/12/22/3-issues-to-watch-global-health-2022/

Programs, Conferences, Grants & Awards

Devember 13th—After decades of being underestimated and overlooked, Muyembe’s hard work and integrity have finally started to pay off. TIME magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of 2020.  Nature included him in its list of the ten people who mattered in science in 2019.  And that same year, the Government of Japan awarded him the Hideyo Noguichi Africa Prize. https://globalhealth.washington.edu/news/2021/12/07/Co-Discoverer-Ebola-Long-Road-Recognition 

December 15th—The 10th Global Conference on Health Promotion on 13-15 December 2021 marked the start of a global movement on the concept of well-being in societies. A focus on well-being encourages different sectors to work together to address global challenges and help people take control over their health and lives. https://www.who.int/news/item/15-12-2021-10th-global-conference-on-health-promotion-charters-a-path-for-creating-well-being-societies

Research

December 2nd—More than 50 countries have stepped up border controls to slow the spread of Omicron, a highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern that is sweeping through South Africa. But researchers say many of the restrictions — especially those targeting only travelers from a handful of countries — are unlikely to keep Omicron out, and come at significant cost to the countries concerned.      https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-03608-x 

December 13th—In this randomized clinical trial including 941 patients, based on the World Health Organization 11-point Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement, convalescent plasma (CCP) did not benefit 468 participants randomized to CCP compared with 473 randomized to placebo from April 2020 to March 2021. However, in exploratory analyses, CCP appeared to benefit those enrolled from April to June 2020, the period when most participants received high-titer CCP and were not receiving remdesivir and corticosteroids at randomization. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2787090

Diseases & Disasters

December 2nd—Researchers in Botswana and South Africa just detected the omicron variant a few weeks ago, but already many scientists are predicting that the efficacy of the vaccines will likely take a hit, probably a big hit, when it comes to stopping infections of omicron. And more breakthrough infections will likely occur if (and that’s a big if) omicron spreads here in the U.S.  At the same time, there’s hope that vaccines will still offer good protection against severe disease and hospitalization, especially with a third dose. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/12/02/1060624669/scientists-race-to-answer-the-question-will-vaccines-protect-us-against-omicron 

January 1st—A South African study from the epicenter of the world’s omicron surge offers a tantalizing hint that the acute phase of the Covid-19 pandemic may be ending. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-01-07/omicron-may-mark-end-of-pandemic-south-african-researchers-say 

Technology 

December 14th—Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine has been less effective in South Africa at keeping people infected with the virus out of hospital since the Omicron variant emerged last month, a real-world study published on Tuesday showed. https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/pfizer-vaccine-protecting-against-hospitalisation-during-omicron-wave-study-2021-12-14/

December 17th—Novavax, Inc., a biotechnology company dedicated to developing and commercializing next-generation vaccines for serious infectious diseases, and Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd. (SII), the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer by volume, today announced that the World Health Organization (WHO) has granted Emergency Use Listing (EUL) for NVX-CoV2373, Novavax’ recombinant nanoparticle protein-based COVID-19 vaccine with Matrix-M™ adjuvant, for active immunization of individuals 18 years of age and older for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/novavax-and-serum-institute-of-india-announce-world-health-organization-grants-emergency-use-listing-for-nvx-cov2373-covid-19-vaccine-301447505.html

Environmental Health

December 2nd—Environmental worries can motivate but also overwhelm people. Polling from September 2020 showed that more than half of adults in the U.S. were anxious about how climate change affects their mental health. And nearly 40% of surveyed Gen Z Americans, born after 1996, said addressing climate change is their top personal concern.  The loss of Kevin remains a shock for me, and for others who cared about him — especially his mother, who has become increasingly involved in environmental advocacy. https://khn.org/news/article/as-climate-worsens-environmentalists-grapple-with-the-mental-toll-of-activism/ 

December 22nd—Sir Robin May, Chief Scientist at the Food Standards Agency (FSA) has called for urgent progress on a unified eco-labelling system for food in the UK. It comes as more than half (54%) of respondents to an FSA survey say they would like to improve their diet to make it more sustainable. The Healthy and Sustainable Diets consumer survey also revealed that 73% believe it’s important for them to buy food that has a low environmental impact.  Sir Robin explained that the way we grow, process and transport food is a major contributor to climate change, with food production as a whole accounting for more than a quarter (25%+) of all greenhouse gas emissions. https://www.cieh.org/ehn/food-safety-integrity/2021/december/eco-labelling-is-urgent-argues-fsa-chief-scientist/

December 22nd—Bath politicians are arguing that conservationists are putting bird welfare above public health concerns as Natural England’s pilot scheme prevents removal of nests and eggs. Bath MP and Liberal Democrat, Wera Hobhouse said it had been almost impossible this year for Bath and North East Somerset Council to get permission to remove nests – despite their rising population and associated noise, droppings, and nuisance. https://www.cieh.org/ehn/public-health-and-protection/2021/december/non-lethal-gull-deterrent-is-not-enough-say-bath-politicians/

December 30th—The modern world is threatening sperm counts, altering male and female reproductive development, and imperiling the future of the human race. https://www.ehn.org/amp/popular-news-2655886522

Equity & Disparities

December 3rd—The newly-discovered Omicron variant has highlighted the unequal distribution of vaccines and the lack of vaccine accessibility in some of the most vulnerable groups in many lower-income countries across the globe.  Vaccine inequity has amplified the logistical burden, and highlighted the visible cracks in the global healthcare system. https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/vaccine-inequity-and-challenges-in-its-global-distribution-1.5693075 

December 13th—The World Health Organization and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital today announced plans to establish a platform that will dramatically increase access to childhood cancer medicines around the world.  The Global Platform for Access to Childhood Cancer Medicines, the first of its kind, will provide an uninterrupted supply of quality-assured childhood cancer medicines to low- and middle-income countries. https://www.who.int/news/item/13-12-2021-who-and-st.-jude-to-dramatically-increase-global-access-to-childhood-cancer-medicines 

December 20th—In the 1950s, when a journalist asked virologist Jonas Salk who owned the polio vaccine, he replied, “Well, the people I would say. There is no patent. Could you patent the sun? https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/dec/21/covid-will-not-be-our-last-global-health-crisis-we-need-a-long-term-plan 

December 22nd—As 2022 approaches, with nearly nine billion vaccine doses administered worldwide, public health experts say goals of global vaccine equity have fallen woefully short. Not only has ramped-up vaccine production failed to address shortages in low-income countries, but there remains a long way to go in addressing the myriad challenges related to getting vaccines from tarmacs in low-income countries into residents’ arms. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/12/22/will-low-income-countries-be-vaccinated-against-covid-in-2022 

Women, Maternal, Neonatal & Children’s Health

November 11th—A dire shortage of anaesthetics, among other drugs, has caused operating theatres across Malawi to close, sharply increasing complication risk for pregnant women and preventing the possibility of caesareans. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/nov/22/pregnant-women-at-risk-in-malawi-as-drug-shortage-prevents-caesareans 

December 14th—”U.S. News & World Report, long known for its rankings of hospitals, issued its first ever “Best Hospitals for Maternity” rankings Dec. 7, highlighting facilities that perform well on key quality indicators. It plans to update the report annually.” https://www.webmd.com/women/news/20211214/fixing-maternal-health-problem-us-what-to-know 

December 23rd—While hospital-based initiatives are important, a renewed focus on maternity and infant health prior to and after delivery are essential to long-term positive health outcomes. https://medcitynews.com/2021/12/maternal-and-infant-health-looking-beyond-delivery/ 

December 28th—When the Taliban began targeting female judges, three women planned a daring escape. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-12-29/inside-the-daring-plan-to-spirit-brave-judges-out-of-afghanistan/100714310?utm_source=sfmc%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B&utm_medium=email%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B&utm_campaign=abc_news_newsmail_am_sfmc%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B&utm_term=%E2%80%8B&utm_id=1797833%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B&sfmc_id=103569834 

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