Global News Round Up

Politics & Policies

Technological innovation, expansion of the use of frontline personnel such as community health workers, and rapid increases in health care financing are likely to be instrumental to achieving universal health care (UHC) in countries around the world, according to a new analysis led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

UW Provost Mark Richards joined Sen. Patty Murray and seven global health security experts in Kane Hall on Monday morning to discuss the future of global health in a violent world.  The event was hosted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Commission on Strengthening America’s Health Security.

On August 3, Representatives Chris Smith (R-NJ) and Barbara Lee (D-CA), with Ed Royce (R-CA), Eliot Engel (D-NY), Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL), and Karen Bass (D-CA) as additional cosponsors, introduced the PEPFAR Extension Act of 2018 (H.R. 6651). The bill reauthorizes the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through 2023 and upholds the United States’ commitment to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Perhaps no other prominent African personality of international clout, apart from late Nelson Mandela, has attracted so much accolade, sympathy, empathy and condolence like the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Atta Annan, who died in Bern, Switzerland, on August 18, 2018.

Programs, Grants & Awards

The Duke Global Health Institute (DGHI) has selected three new Doris Duke International Research Fellows for the 2018-19 academic year.  The fellows—one medical student from Indiana University and two from Duke University—will conduct clinical global health research throughout the upcoming academic year.

Research

Researchers explored the link between cardiovascular health level (defined using the 7-item tool from the American Heart Association [AHA]) and risk of dementia and cognitive decline in older persons. They observed that increased numbers of optimal cardiovascular health metrics and a higher cardiovascular health score were related to a lower risk of dementia and lower rates of cognitive decline.

The financial fallout from breast cancer can last years after diagnosis, particularly for those with lymphedema, a common side effect from treatment, causing cumulative and cascading economic consequences for survivors, their families, and society, a study led by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers suggests.

Despite increased attention to opioid abuse, prescriptions have remained relatively unchanged for many US patients, new research finds.

Diseases & Disasters

It’s been years since the tobacco industry promised to stop luring young people to smoke cigarettes.  Phillip Morris International says it is “designing a smoke-free future.” British American Tobacco, likewise, claims to be “transforming tobacco” into a safer product.

In a shocking revelation, a recent study has found that alcohol is associated with nearly one in 10 deaths in people aged 15-49 years old.  Overall, according to the research that estimates levels of alcohol use and health effects in 195 countries between 1990 to 2016, 2.8 million deaths occur each year worldwide.

Listeria monocytogenes as the main causative agent of human listeriosis is an intracellular bacterium that has the capability to infect a wide range of cell types. Human listeriosis is a sporatic foodborne disease, which is epidemiologically linked with consumption of contaminated food products.  Listeriosis may range from mild and self-limiting diseases in healthy people to severe systemic infections in susceptible populations.

Approximately one-third of the earth’s population – that’s 2.4 billion people – drinks alcohol, and 2.8 million deaths a year are caused by alcohol-related problems, according to a massive study estimating alcohol use and health effects in 195 countries.

Salt may not be as damaging to health as is usually claimed, according to a controversial new study which suggests campaigns to persuade people to cut down may only be worthwhile in countries with very high sodium consumption, such as China.  The World Health Organization recommends cutting sodium intake to no more than 2g a day – the equivalent of 5g of salt – because of the link to increased blood pressure, which is in turn implicated in stroke.

Those who fail to vaccinate are bound to suffer the diseases of the past.  Measles, which once killed an estimated 2.6 million people a year, is still killing almost 90,000 people a year according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and may be endemic again in the Americas, according to the latest data from the Pan American Health Organization.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo started using an experimental vaccine against the deadly Ebola virus yesterday after identifying it as the virulent Zaire strain. The latest outbreak has spread to a conflict region and is suspected of killing at least 36 people during its first week.

Aardman Animations, creator of the popular “Wallace and Gromit” claymation films, and actor Hugh Laurie teamed up for a 2-minute video on the history of his disease, which claims 450,000 lives a year.  It’s called “Malaria Must Die, So Millions Can Live.” And it stars “Mozzie the Mosquito.”

Technology

A new report from researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) details the investigational use of a drug to treat Chagas disease now available commercially in the United States.

A rotavirus vaccine introduced in rural Malawi has reduced deaths from infant diarrhea morale by more than a third, proving for the first time that a major intervention in a low-income country can be highly effective.

Environmental Health

Exposure to a prevalent type of air pollution—particulate matter called PM2.5—takes one year off the average global lifespan, according to research published Wednesday (Aug. 22) in the journal Environmental Science & Technology Letters. But that air pollution is never evenly distributed; for people living in the most-polluted areas of Asia and Africa, the situation is worse—life expectancy for them drops between one year and two months to one year and 11 months.

Equity & Disparities

Women’s Equality Day commemorates the ratification of the 19th Amendment and the resilient women who work to promote the American value of equality.  Today, Peace Corps recognizes the contributions that volunteers have made to help advance equality across the globe and back home in the United States. Currently, women make up 63 percent of all Peace Corps volunteers.

Women, Maternal, Neonatal & Children’s Health

An estimated 6.5 million abortions take place across Latin America each year.  Three-quarters of these procedures are unlawful, often performed in unsafe illegal clinics or at home.

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Interventions and Strategies for Addressing Global Intimate Partner Violence

This is the fourth part of a IH Blog series featured this summer, Intimate Partner Violence: Global Burden, Risk Factors and Outcomes.

Written by: Ewinka Romulus MPH and Dr. Heather de Vries McClintock PhD MSPH MSW

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) continues to be a serious global public health concern affecting millions of women (and in some cases, men). IPV refers to any harmful behavior within an intimate relationship that includes physical, psychological or sexual harm. Existing research suggests that different types of violence often coexist. For instance, we tend to see physical IPV often accompanied by sexual IPV and emotional abuse. While the extent of IPV varies across regions, higher prevalence exists amongst poorer countries and within communities of a lower socioeconomic level. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports a higher prevalence of IPV among African, Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia Regions (approximately 37%). Whereas, lower rates of IPV are found among women in European and Western Pacific regions.

To date, different theories and models have been used to explain IPV behavior within communities. The most widely used model for understanding intimate partner violence is the Social-Ecological Model which considers the complex interaction between the individual, relationship, community and societal factors that may influence IPV. The societal level identifies broad societal factors including social and cultural norms, health, economic, educational, and social policies, which may create an environment where IPV is either encouraged or inhibited. Researchers are continuously examining the factors associated with IPV at these different levels and factors.

Relying on this conceptual framework interventions and strategies to address IPV globally require a multi-level approach. Accordingly, the World Health Organization’s Global Plan of Action to Address IPV 2016, calls for a multi-sectoral approach in which strategies for addressing IPV occur on all levels of the Social-Ecological Framework (e.g. individual, relationship, community, etc.). The goal of this plan is to strengthen the role of the health system in all settings and within a national multisectoral response to develop and implement policies and programmes, and provide services that promote and protect the health and well-being of everyone, and in particular, of women, girls and children who are subjected to, affected by or at risk of interpersonal violence. The plan calls for several actions that respond to and prevent gender-based violence against women and girls (VAWG). These include “creating an enabling legal and health policy environment that promotes gender equality and human rights, and empowers women and girls; provision of comprehensive and quality health-care services, particularly for sexual and reproductive health; evidence-informed prevention programmes promoting egalitarian and non-violent gender norms and relationships; improving evidence through collection of data on the many forms of VAWG and harmful practices that are often invisible in regular surveillance, health and crime statistics.”

Several countries, such as Uganda, India, and Nigeria have integrated multiple approaches encompassing the key principles mentioned above. For instance, in Uganda, an organization called Raising Voices works to prevent violence against both women and children. Raising Voices focuses on transforming attitudes and behaviors to promote gender equity in communities through a tool called SASA!. SASA! is a well-known intervention that has been adapted and implemented across regions, namely, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The SASA! intervention includes four steps: Start, Awareness, Support, and Action which focus on educating communities through a series of activities that address the importance of power and awareness in relationships. A recent evaluation of SASA! in Uganda demonstrated a significant reduction in the reported level of physical partner violence against women. In Haiti the MDG Achievement Fund  partnered with local women’s organization to establish health clinics and provide counsel and care for victims of violence. Local leaders are trained to educate and spread awareness about domestic violence within communities and to report a witnessed crime to local authorities. The MDG Achievement Fund partners with UN Women to create educational and socio-economic opportunities for vulnerable women to increase economic independence and autonomy. There has also been an increase in the number of One-Stop Crisis centers worldwide to help recent victims of violence.

Contextual factors shape the etiology and manifestation of IPV and thus effective interventions differ within communities and across countries. Programs that employ models that are specific to cultural norms while including community members have been found to be effective in addressing IPV. In addition, structural and systematic intervention strategies (economic, social, political, and physical) to reduce IPV or its impact may also be essential to reduce IPV’s global burden (Bourey C, 2015). An example, of an issue embedded in underlying structural and systemic inequities is that may be potentially modified to improve IPV is that of literacy.  Regions with lower literacy levels show a higher prevalence of IPV among women. One study conducted in Ethiopia (Deyessa, 2010) found illiterate women were more likely to justify the reasons for a man beating his wife, compared to literate women. The study also found that literate women with a literate spouse were least likely to have experienced physical violence compared to literate women with an illiterate spouse. Similar findings were reported in a study in India (Ackerson, 2008) in which women residing in neighborhoods with high literacy rates were were less likely to experience IPV. Literacy can also have an important impact on other indicators of well-being entwined with outcomes for IPV such as contraceptive knowledge and use. In our recent work we found that literacy was significantly associated with the utilization of modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.166, 95% CI = 1.015, 1.340). Thus, interventions that seek to modify systemic and structural components that influence literacy may have important implications for IPV.

Intimate partner violence is a common problem worldwide that needs to be addressed incorporating contextual needs. The World Health Organization calls for a collaborative, coordinated and integrated response for addressing this significant public health issue. It is evident that interventions should be multi-sectoral and a comprehensive approach should aim to address IPV implications on individual, relationship, community and societal levels.

Screen Shot 2018-08-17 at 11.00.41 AM.pngEwinka Minerva Romulus, MPH is a recent graduate from Arcadia University’s MPH program. Her master’s thesis focused on the influence of literacy on contraceptive knowledge and use among women in Swaziland. Prior to her graduate career, she studied Bio-behavioral Health at the Pennsylvania State University where she gained an understanding of the interactions among biological, behavioral, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental variables that influence health. Ewinka gained interest in global health after observing the existing issues around poverty, health, and inequality in her own country – Haiti.  She is planning on continuing her studies at Drexel University in the fall of 2018 to obtain a certificate in Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Her current interests are in women’s health, global health, and nutrition. Her global health experience includes traveling to Guatemala with Mayanza Organization to provide health education and health screenings to school-children. She is also involved in organizations in Haiti with a mission of eradicating many communicable diseases. During her free time, Ewinka enjoys reading, traveling, and learning to play the guitar.

McClintock.PictureDr. Heather F. de Vries McClintock is an IH Section Member and Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences at Arcadia University. She earned her Master of Science in Public Health from the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. McClintock received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Pennsylvania with a focus on health behavior and promotion. Her research broadly focuses on the prevention, treatment, and management of chronic disease and disability globally. Recent research aims to understand and reduce the burden of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to completing her doctorate she served as a Program Officer at the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and a Senior Project Manager in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania. At the University of Pennsylvania she led several research initiatives that involved improving patient compliance and access to quality healthcare services including the Spectrum of Depression in Later Life and Integrating Management for Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Studies.

 

Global News Round Up

Politics & Policies

Given the collective threat posed by certain highly pathogenic infectious diseases – whether through naturally occurring outbreaks or deliberate or accidental release – the governments of the United States and Australia have formed a multi-sectoral partnership to strengthen health security in the Indo-Pacific Region. This partnership advances the goals of the U.S. National Security Strategy and the Australian Foreign Policy White Paper and strongly supports implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), which endeavors to create a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats.

The Trump administration is resisting the World Health Organization’s effort to sharply limit antibiotic use in farm animals, a move intended to help preserve the drugs’ effectiveness.

Since the 2016 United States elections, immigrants from Latin America with HIV have become more anxious about the possibility of being deported to their home countries and losing access to medical care, according to a recent Viewpoint published in The Lancet HIV.

Programs, Grants & Awards

Tuesday’s Global Disability Summit in London yielded 170 commitments to increase disability inclusion and tackle stigma in lower-income countries, according to the United Kingdom government, from financial pledges, to in-kind devices and technology, to new or amended action plans and charters.

On July 17th, NTI | bio of the Nuclear Threat Initiative partnered with the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, PATH, and the Global Health Council, with support from the Open Philanthropy Project, to bring together congressional staff across committees to highlight the challenges of detecting and responding to an outbreak caused by a novel pathogen.

Research

Seven out of 10 middle-aged people in India have poor muscle health, key to an active lifestyle and can impact health and wellness, finds a survey.

Duke faculty have been partnering with colleagues in Sir Lanka since 2005, but their research collaboration recently entered new territory: outbreak response.

Diseases & Disasters

Twelve cases of human infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, otherwise known as rat lungworm, have been identified in the continental United States, with possible sources including raw vegetables from local gardens, according to study results from the CDC.

With the recent outbreak declared over in little more than two months, the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s health minister explains how a major crisis was avoided.

Advancements in health and science and a sea change in policy priorities over the past decade have made it possible to believe that an end to the HIV epidemic might be in sight.

A report by UNAIDS, “Miles to go—closing gaps, breaking barriers, righting injustices”, warns that the global response to HIV is at a critical point.  Eastern and Southern Africa remain the regions most affected by the HIV epidemic, accounting for 45 percent of the world’s HIV infections and 53 percent of people with HIV globally.

Technology

Medical devices are essential to health care systems however, health systems in low-income countries (LICs) often have limited access to them. As a result, these countries rely heavily on donations, with some LICs receiving donations making up 80% of their supply of medical devices. While good intentioned, there is often a mismatch between the types of equipment needed or usable and those that are received.

Chinese state media say a total of 15 people have been detained in a growing scandal over the faking of records by a vaccine rabies maker.

Environmental Health

In June of 1988, a time when most experts treated global warming as a future issue, NASA’s leading climate scientist James Hansen announced on Capitol Hill that Earth’s atmosphere was already warming and that it was getting worse.  Hansen told the Associated Press that he wishes that his forecast about global warming had been wrong, but unfortunately it was right.

Researchers think that temperature increases could lead to a 1.4 percent increase in suicides in the United States and a 2.3 percent increase in Mexico by 2050. That would add up to an additional 21,000 suicides in the two countries.  The effects of rising temperatures on suicide rates are about the same as that of economic recessions effects, according to the study authors.

Equity & Disparities

More than 800 delegates representing government, civil society and the development community are convening today for the first Global Disability Summit, hosted by the British and Kenyan governments and the International Disability Alliance with the goal of generating new commitments toward implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

India has scrapped its 12% tax on all sanitary products following months of campaigning by activists.

Women, Maternal, Neonatal & Children’s Health

A major new study has shown that rotavirus vaccination reduced infant diarrhea deaths by 34% in rural Malawi, a region with high levels of child deaths.

In 1968 at the International Conference on Human Rights, family planning was declared a human right.  Today, we mark the 50th anniversary of World Population Day and we celebrate this watershed moment when the global community asserted the right of all individuals to plan their families.

 

Happy Breastfeeding Week! #WBW2018

World breastfeeding week takes place from August 1st to 7th this year. This year’s theme is Breastfeeding: Foundation of Life.

There are tools for all of your advocacy and information needs!

WHO has infographics and webinar information: http://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2018/08/01/default-calendar/world-breastfeeding-week-2018

The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) has an action folder in several languages (http://worldbreastfeedingweek.org/actionfolder/) and a social media toolkit (http://worldbreastfeedingweek.org/social-media-kit/).

WABA is also hosting a Thunderclap! Those who join will automatically share the same breastfeeding message at the same time across FaceBook and Twitter on August 1. https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/70825-world-breastfeeding-week-2018

In related news: In the U.S., Idaho and Utah recently passed bills legalizing breastfeeding in public for their residents. It is now legal in all 50 U.S. states to breastfeed in public. Appropriately, this week also kicks off our own National Breastfeeding Month in the U.S. (http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/nbm).

Weekly themes:

  • Week 1: Policy Pulse 
    Finding Solutions: Small policy changes can go a long way toward supporting breastfeeding families
  • Week 2: Special Circumstances & Emergency Preparedness 
    Always Ready: Resources and guidance on how to manage feeding during an emergency
  • Week 3: Call to Action 
    Answering the Call: Everyone can help make breastfeeding easier
  • Week 4: Black Breastfeeding Week 
    Love on Top: On top of joy, on top of grief, on top of everything

Happy messaging! Support breastfeeding everyday!

 

Outcomes of Global Intimate Partner Violence

This is the third part of a IH Blog series featured this summer, Intimate Partner Violence: Global Burden, Risk Factors and Outcomes.

Written by: Erica Hartmann MPH, MMS (c) and Dr. Heather de Vries McClintock PhD MSPH MSW

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) as physical violence, sexual violence, stalking and psychological (or emotional) aggression by a current or former intimate partner (Violence Prevention, 2017). Consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be immediate, long lasting, and invisible. The physical impact of  IPV includes broken bones, lost teeth, hearing damage, and vocal cord damage due to attempted strangulation (Garcia-Moreno C et al., 2005). The World Health Organization’s multi-country study showed that women who were ever abused by their partner were twice as likely to report poor health and physical and mental problems when compared to women who were never abused (Garcia-Moreno C et al., 2005). Diagnoses resulting from IPV include irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic pain syndromes, and asthma exacerbation (Crofford, 2007; Heise,Garcia Moreno, 2002). Additionally, violence during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, late entry into prenatal care, stillbirth, premature labor, fetal injury, and low birthweight (Bailey, 2010; Garcia-Moreno C et al., 2005; Silverman, Decker, Reed, and Raj, 2006). IPV can have lasting, and often unseen consequences.

Intimate partner violence can be harmful to the victim and to the children in the home where violence is occuring. Studies from around the globe find that IPV is a leading predictor of child maltreatment (Hunter, et al., 2000; Family Violence Prevention Fund, 2006). Growing up in a home where the mother experienced violence is considered an adverse childhood experience, and is associated with greater likelihood of poor outcomes in later life such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and suicide attempts (Felitti, 1998).

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has previously been linked with child mortality in countries including Bangladesh, the United States, India, Malawi, and Timor Leste (Hossain, Sumi, Haque, Bari, 2014; Mwale, 2004; Silverman et al., 2011; Taft, Powell, and Watson, 2015; Garoma, Fantahun,and Worku, 2012). A recent study using data from the Timor Leste’s 2013 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) showed that women who experienced physical violence were 30% more likely to experience child loss (the death of one or more children), and women who experienced combined forms of violence were 45% more likely to experience child loss when compared with women who had not experienced violence (Taft, Powell, and Watson, 2015).

We sought to uncover the relationship between intimate partner violence and child loss using the Togo demographic health survey (DHS) administered between 2013-2014. In addition, we investigated the effect of emotional violence which to our knowledge, has not been investigated in associated with child loss.  The Demographic Health survey is a nationally representative household survey that is administered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This survey provides a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators and is developed in collaboration with the surveyed country. The Togo 2013-2014 DHS survey was translated into 13 languages and was administered by 90 highly trained individuals after gaining privacy and consent of the participant. The DHS survey assessed lifetime victimization of physical, emotional, and sexual violence (yes/no), and child loss (difference between the number of childbirths and number of living children, 1 or more coded as yes/ 0 coded as no). Covariates assessed included age, education, marital status, wealth index, employment, justification of wife-beating, and urban/rural residence. Data were weighted and analyzed through a bivariate logistic regression adjusting for covariates using SPSS version 14.

In total, 4842 Togolese women completed the domestic violence module of the Demographic health survey. In all, 36.5% of women reported victimization of physical, sexual, or emotional IPV in their lifetime. Women who experienced any form of IPV were 1.415 times as likely to experience child loss when compared to women who never experienced IPV (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.415, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.227,1.633). Women were significantly more likely to experience child loss if they experienced physical IPV (AOR=1.340, 95% CI = 1.135,1.582), sexual IPV (AOR=1.488, 95% CI = 162,1.905) or emotional IPV (AOR= 1.325, 95% CI = 1.143,1.536). Women who experienced combined forms of violence were at significantly increased odds of experiencing a child’s death when compared to women who never experienced violence (AOR=1.479, (95%CI = 1.231,1.778). We saw a significant association between all forms of intimate partner violence and child loss among this population of Togolese women. This finding indicates a need for child mortality interventions that address intimate partner violence to reduce Togo’s child mortality rate.

Addressing IPV requires strategies implemented at the individual, community, and policy levels. Screening for intimate partner violence during prenatal visits and providing social worker counseling to future mothers reduces recurrent episodes of IPV and improves childbirth outcomes (leading to higher birth weights and fewer premature births) (Kiely, Elmohandes, El-khorazaty, & Gantz, 2011). Data also indicates that policies including support programs for survivors such as shelters, housing programs, legal services, have been effective in reducing negative outcomes. The World Health Organization outlines strategies through which policy can most effectively reduce the burden of IPV suggesting that the healthcare and other sectors should have minimum standards for addressing this issue. These standards include establishing clear working protocols encompassing clear referral pathways for survivors of IPV (WHO Response to IPV, 2016). The degree to and nature in which countries follow these recommendations varies dramatically with some countries aggressively attempting to address the issue while others failing to even acknowledge its existence. The consequences of IPV are vast and impact people all over the world. Public health professionals are at the forefront of tackling this issue and will continue to play a critical role in reducing the global burden of IPV.

Please stay tuned for Part IV in this series: Interventions and Strategies for Addressing Global Intimate Partner Violence.

Screen Shot 2018-07-24 at 11.14.56 PM

Erica Hartmann, MMS (c), MMS (c) 2020 is a student at Arcadia University who hopes to prevent violence by serving as a physician assistant specializing in primary care in communities with limited access to healthcare. Erica worked under Dr. Heather McClintock to uncover links between IPV and child loss in Togo, and hopes to continue researching global violence prevention interventions after graduating from Arcadia.

McClintock.PictureDr. Heather F. de Vries McClintock is an IH Section Member and Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences at Arcadia University. She earned her Master of Science in Public Health from the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. McClintock received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Pennsylvania with a focus on health behavior and promotion. Her research broadly focuses on the prevention, treatment, and management of chronic disease and disability globally. Recent research aims to understand and reduce the burden of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to completing her doctorate she served as a Program Officer at the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and a Senior Project Manager in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania. At the University of Pennsylvania she led several research initiatives that involved improving patient compliance and access to quality healthcare services including the Spectrum of Depression in Later Life and Integrating Management for Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Studies.

References:

Bailey, B. A. (2010). Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management. International Journal of Women’s Health, 2, 183–197.

Crofford LJ. (2007) Violence, stress, and somatic syndromes. Trauma Violence Abuse; 8:299–313.

Garcia-Moreno C et al. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic
Violence.

Garoma, S., Fantahun, M., & Worku, A. (2012). Maternal Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and under-Five Children Mortality in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 58(6), 467-474. doi:10.1093/tropej/fms018

Heise L, Garcia Moreno C. (2002). Violence by intimate partners. In: Krug EG et al., eds.

Hunter WM et al. (2000). Risk Factors for Severe Child Discipline Practices in Rural India. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 25: 435–447.

Hossain, Sumi, Haque, Bari. (2014). Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women on Under- Five Child Mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(8) 1402-1417.

Family Violence Prevention Fund (2006). Programs: Children and Domestic Violence. Family Violence Prevention Fund. Available at: http://endabuse.org/ programs/children/.

Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . .
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Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults. American Journal of Preventive
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Kiely, M., El-mohandes, A. A. E., El-khorazaty, M. N., & Gantz, M. G. (2011). An Integrated Intervention to Reduce Intamate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial, 115, 273–283. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181cbd482.AN

Mwale (2004). Infant and Child Mortality in Malawi. Neonatal and Child Mortality. pp 123-132.

Runyan D et al. (2002). Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents and Other Caregivers. In: Krug EG et al. (Eds). World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, World Health Organization, pp 59–86.

Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Reed, E., & Raj, A. (2006). Intimate partner violence
victimization prior to and during pregnancy among women residing in 26 U.S. states:
Associations with maternal and neonatal health. American Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, 195(1), 140-148. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.12.052 

Taft, A. J., Powell, R. L., & Watson, L. F. (2015). in Timor-Leste, (July 2014), 177–181.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12339

Violence Prevention. (2017). Retrieved October 03, 2017, from
https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html