Beat Diabetes: WHO call to action

It’s World Health Day today and the WHO has issued a call to action to “Beat Diabetes”.

World Health Day 2016 poster: Halt the rise in diabetes

Source: World health day

Diabetes is  a set of diseases that result in excessive amounts of sugar in the blood a.k.a high blood glucose. Type 2 diabetes is among the most common types of diabetes and it occurs when the body stops using insulin properly ultimately leading to “insulin resistance”. The other common types are

  1. Type 1 diabetes
  • occurs due to lack of insulin production
  • poorly understood form of diabetes

2. Gestational diabetes

  • occurs during pregnancy
  • risk factor for pregnancy related complications
  • increased risk of Type 2 diabetes for both the mothers and their children.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and its long term complications include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathies, kidney failure  and poor blood flow to the limbs that could result in amputations. It is also among the leading cause of death. In 2012 nearly 1.5 million deaths were directly attributed to diabetes. Early diagnosis, management of blood glucose levels through diet, physical activity and medication when necessary and routine screenings are not only cost-effective but are effective interventions to prevent diabetes-related complications from occurring or worsening.

A new study published in The Lancet this month has raised the alarm by showing that there has been quadrupling of the number of people with diabetes since 1980. The pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies involving nearly 4.4 million participants from 146 countries shows increasing burden of diabetes, more so in low and middle income countries than in high-income countries. This number is startling and is  a wake up call to public health and health care professionals.

World Health Day 2016 banner

Image Source: World health day


Diabetes is a treatable disease and efforts to prevent/treat it, will help achieve MDG 3 target of preventing premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by one-third by 2030. We should be working together to raise awareness about diabetes with a particular focus on low and middle income countries, scale up prevention strategies that are specific, effective and affordable.

For this campaign, WHO has created a quiz-take it to test your knowledge!

Together we can Beat Diabetes!

Note: This was cross-posted to my blog

PRI’s The World: Mysterious Kidney Disease Now Found in South Asia

I found this story particularly interesting, since I did a one-year fellowship with CDC-NIOSH on pesticide poisoning surveillance. The story examines a high incidence of kidney disease in Sri Lanka and discusses how farmers, medical professionals and government authorities have been dealing with it. The full story can be viewed here; a summary of the story, and a video, can be found below.

A form of chronic kidney disease (CKD), similar to one that has been killing sugarcane field workers in Central America, has now been observed in South Asia. The World‘s Rhitu Chatterjee reports from Sri Lanka, where thousands of rice farmers and their families are affected. Her story is part of a series, Mystery in the Fields, produced in collaboration with The Center for Public Integrity.

The afflicted show no signs of high blood pressure or diabetes – the most common causes of CKD elsewhere in the world – and yet their kidneys are failing. There is no known cure. Authorities are trying to find a cause, but their preliminary findings have not reached the people whose lives are threatened.

A new study by the World Health Organization and the Sri Lankan Ministry of Health suggests that Sri Lanka’s CKD sufferers may have been poisoned by chronic, low-level exposure to the heavy metals cadmium and arsenic. Researchers think the toxins may be coming from farm chemicals, such as pesticides and fertilizers. But while the study points to a possible cause, the study’s results have not been widely publicized.

Chatterjee speaks with rice farmers, doctors, government officials, and a representative from Sri Lanka’s farm chemicals industry. Her report examines the results of the WHO study, the secrecy that surrounds it, and the frustration of Sri Lankans who see little being done to prevent more people from falling ill.

The full report can be found here:

And we wonder at the growing obesity epidemic…

Global health advocates are becoming increasingly vocal about the growing international obesity epidemic, and all of the complications that come with it (e.g. cancer, diabetes, etc.). I have been traveling all across the state during the last few weeks for my day job (I coordinate a surveillance program at the  state health department), so I have been spending a lot of time in airports. Here is a shot of a drink vending machine at one of them.

Yep, that’s right: rows and rows of sodas and sugar-sweetened beverages, and no water. Next to this machine is a snack machine (naturally full of candy and salty snacks) and next to that was a coffee machine. There was no place in this tiny airport to buy a bottle of water.

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is why over a third (35.7%) of Americans are obese.

Cancer: the Next Challenge for Global Health

Guest blogger: Dr. Isobel Hoskins

We think of cancer as a disease of affluent countries. That may have been true in the 1970s, but since then, cancer levels in developing countries have risen alarmingly. This massive rise in cancer is one reason why a UN summit in June is addressing chronic diseases, including cancer, with the aim of kickstarting the fight against these illnesses.

Some figures: 5.5 million of the nearly 8 million deaths from cancer in 2008 happened in the developing world. Back in 1970 only 15% of cancers were found in the developing world. However, by 2008, according to the World Cancer Report, more than half of cases were in developing countries. These numbers hide a burden of misery – cancers in developing countries are often detected at a late stage – too late for many treatments. These patients often don’t even have access to pain medications.

What drove this increase? The WHO Director General, in a recent address to the IAEA, cited ageing, urbanization and the globalisation of unhealthy lifestyles. Population growth has also driven the numbers up. Isn’t it ironic that improved life expectancy leads to increased cancer burdens?

Many papers can be found indicating the enormous problem that cancer is for developing countries. Given the expense of treatment is there anything that can be done to reduce the cancer burden? Fortunately there is – I read a paper in the Lancet that gives a ray of hope…

Farmer et al. say that we shouldn’t accept that cancers in developing countries will remain untreated. Instead, we should make cancer prevention and treatment broadly available as rapidly as possible. We should consider the example of HIV and TB a decade ago: critics asserted that HIV and TB treatments were too complex and long term for weak health systems. These arguments proved unfounded. Farmer et al. point out examples of successful treatment and prevention of cancer in low resource settings that we can build on.

The approach should concentrate on curable and preventable cancers. Farmer et al. have come up with a list. These cancers can be prevented by reducing risk factors such as tobacco use or infection, or they can be cured by early detection and surgery methods or specific low cost systemic drugs. It includes some very common cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer and liver cancer.

Many problems posed by cancer care, including cost of drugs and lack of infrastructure and specialists, was a big obstacle for HIV, too. The solutions could be similar: Farmer et al. suggest reducing drug cost by drug purchasing and production negotiations, as well as the use of primary and secondary caregivers to deliver services. The paper cites an example of cancer care in Malawi that uses such workers with remote support from specialists.

And if there is no suitable treatment, pain control is low cost, and the paper asserts that all should have access to that as a human right.

Farmer and co-authors have formed the Global Taskforce on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries to address cancer care worldwide. I for one hope this taskforce prospers!

Dr Isobel Hoskins is Co-Editor of the bibliographic database Global Health which covers public health research worldwide. Global Health is produced by CABI, an international not-for-profit information provider. She’s usually found blogging on the Global Health Knowledge Base and on Twitter here: @CABI_Health.

Diabetes in the developing world: Overlooked and underestimated

In a field where war, communicable and vector-borne diseases, and access to clean water and sanitation are everyday crises, chronic diseases are often minimized or simply overlooked by global health advocates.  Billions of dollars are poured into HIV prevention and treatment efforts and malaria vaccines with the idea that once we deal with these “acute issues,” we can begin to focus on chronic diseases that receive so much more attention in developed nations.  However, we overlook chronic disease at our own peril, or perhaps the peril of those that are suffering from it while it is unaddressed.  These diseases are becoming a major problem in poorer countries where they are not being dealt with: 80% of chronic disease deaths now occur in low and middle income countries.1

Zahida Bibi, a Pakistani woman with diabetes, wearing a white shawl and surrounded by her family.
Zahida Bibi (image courtesy of WHO/Chris de Bode)

Diabetes in particular is a growing burden on the developing world.  This chronic condition, caused by the body’s inability to produce enough insulin (the hormone that regulates blood sugar) or to use the insulin it produces, can lead to heart disease and stroke, kidney failure, nerve damage, and blindness.2  Reduced blood flow and nerve damage often leads to foot ulcers and eventual limb amputation.  The WHO tells the story of Zahida, a Pakistani woman whose diabetes went undiagnosed for eight years.  She is now receiving insulin and proper care, but an infected foot ulcer eventually led to her losing her right leg below the knee.

The International Diabetes Federation estimates that diabetes may cause nearly four million deaths in 20103 – more deaths than either malaria,4 AIDS,5 or tuberculosis6 cause each year.  Like many other diseases that weigh heavily on the public health of developing nations, it is relatively easy to prevent and to treat.  Good diet and regular physical activity have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying onset of type 2 diabetes.7  Early diagnosis with simple blood tests and moderate blood sugar control with insulin are cost-effective interventions for patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes in low and middle income countries.  However, as with other diseases that receive more attention, reaching people with these interventions remains a challenge – it is as difficult to provide people with insulin as it is to bring them mosquito nets, antiretroviral medications, antibiotics, or clean water.  Still, it is a condition that we can no longer afford to ignore: the WHO estimates that diabetes deaths will double by the year 2030.  It is a condition that deserves at least as much attention as the other “everyday crises” of global health.