Suspicion of having gay sex or relationships is illegal in Kenya and punishable by 14 years in jail. As a result, a group of activists and human rights lawyers in Kenya have been challenging this criminal code and fighting laws that punish LGBT people for being in a relationship or having sex.
One of the most prominent organization leading the issue is the National Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission in Nairobi, an organization arguing that LGBT communities are being unfairly targeted. In 2016, the commission received 193 reports of violations, mostly cyber-bullying, blackmail, verbal assault, and physical assault. Other forms of violence and discrimination include eviction, employer termination, or “corrective” rape. Most recently, forced anal exams were still carried out in Kenya despite being considered a degrading form of torture and having no medical merit; while straight people who have anal sex are not considered criminals. Forced anal examinations are usually performed by a healthcare provider at the request of law enforcement officials. These examinations are intended to cause emotional and physical pain and offer no potential benefits to the individual. This could also result in serious mental health concerns such as depression or suicide. This forced homosexuality test is not only a violation of medical ethics but a violation of health equity.
It originated when two men were found and arrested by police because they were thought to be gay. During this time, the court ruled against them and had them get the tests. Little is known about the true prevalence of this practice but the fact that it was codified in legal systems is astonishing. This ruling was reversed in Kenya in March 2018. Many are trying to determine if the ruling on forced anal testing could be an indicator for a turning point for LGBT cases. Promoting equality through health is extremely valuable, especially in this instance, and addressing any barriers could improve the overall health around the LGBT community.
To this day at least nine countries, several of which are in Africa, force anal examinations to investigate or punish alleged same-sex behaviors between consenting men or transgender women. A study from 2016 found that Kenya and several other countries use anal examinations as a means of determining a man’s sexuality. Tunisia, Egypt, Turkmenistan, Cameroon, Lebanon, Uganda, and Zambia, and Tanzania and possibly some others that have reported some instances, such as Syria, are included. Law enforcement officials should never order the examinations since they lack evidentiary value. Doctors should not conduct them and courts should not admit them into evidence.
The weekly news round-up for last week is posted below. Apologies for the delay. The holidays keep us all busy!
CDC’s report on its contributions on women’s health is available as the “Review on Women’s Health for the Year 2011” (Source: http://www.cdc.gov/Features/WomensHealthReview/?s_cid=fb1332).
Politics and Policies:
Diseases & Disasters
These headlines were compiled by Vani Nanda, MPH Candidate at West Chester University PA.
Politics and Policies
- The US federal government has awarded Iowa $7 million to prepare a computerized system that will help the small businesses and individuals to find affordable coverage. (Source: http://blogs.desmoinesregister.com/dmr/index.php/2011/11/29/feds-give-state-7-million-for-insurance-exchange-planning/ )
- US federal agency has rejected Indiana’s bid for an exemption from federal health care. (Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505245_162-57332830/feds-reject-ind-request-for-health-care-exemption/ )
- The House of Delegates, at its interim meeting in November, directed the AMA to use screening tools from the National Institute of Drug Abuse and others to identify the patients likely to abuse prescription drugs. (Source: http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2011/11/28/prsd1128.htm )
- From December 7-9, 2011, Kenya will hold its first national human resources for health conference which will avail a platform for placing health as a priority in the health strategy and national development towards vision 2030. The theme of the conference will be “Renewing commitment to the health workforce towards achievement of MDGs and vision 2030”. (Source: http://allafrica.com/stories/201111291193.html )
- AstraZeneca Canada Inc., in partnership with mindyourbody and Physical and Health Educators (PHE) of Canada, together with the active involvement of the youth, has organized a program in Ontario, Canada. It is focused on improving the mental health and emotional well-being of vulnerable adolescents. (Source: http://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/505390 )
- The Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority will be posting no smoke signs within 15 feet of bus stops in Austin, Texas, beginning from February 1st 2012 to prevent the non-smokers from inhaling the secondhand smoke. (Source: http://www.dailytexanonline.com/opinion/2011/11/28/capmetros-policy-breath-fresh-air )
- A recent study done by Dr. Avi Dor, professor in the Department of Health Policy at the GW School of Public Health and Health Services indicates a need to develop policies to encourage medication compliance which will lead to cost savings through healthcare system in the long run. (Source: http://www.newswise.com/articles/higher-patient-adherence-to-disease-modifying-therapies-reduced-costs-for-ms-patients )
- An invitation for the bid for consultant on public health authorities’ activities with the aim to protect the environment has been issued by the Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan. (Source: http://abc.az/eng/news_29_11_2011_60039.html )
Diseases and Disasters
These headlines were compiled by Vani Nanda, MPH Candidate at West Chester University PA.
September 5 was Labor Day.
POLITICS AND POLICY
- The State Department has announced the official US Delegation to the UN High Level Meeting on NCDs, which will take place September 19-20.
- Access to affordable lifesaving medicines will be threatened where they are needed most—in parts of the developing world—if the U.S.insists on implementing restrictive intellectual property policies in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement, says Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders).
- Sarah Boseley shares the great news that Kenya has officially made female genital mutilation illegal.
- A federal appeals court in Virginia has dismissed two lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of President Barack Obama’s health care overhaul.
- United Nations chief Ban Ki-moon singled out sustainable development as the top issue facing the planet with the world’s seven billionth person expected to be born next month. Key to this was climate change, and he said time was running out with the population set to explode this century.
- Thousands of proposed cuts in the US Congress could lead to significant cuts to USAID.
- The Philippines reproductive health bill is still making its way through the senate. Meanwhile, 7 villages in Bataan, the Philippines have banned “artificial contraception” amid national debate over the bill.
- A report co-authored by an Australian academic highlights the need for healthy ecosystems as the basis for sustainable water resources and stable food security for people around the world.
- Sometime this fall, the world’s population will reach 7 billion people. Experts now forecast that by 2050, the population could be 10 billion. Some say those numbers should force policy makers to focus more intently on making family planning much more widely available in the developing world.
- The Institution of Mechanical Engineers has put together a one day conference bringing together innovators and health workers to share ideas about ways to more easily deliver interventions.
- It has been commonly held that insecticide treated bed nets reduce the rate of malaria for people who use them. Now there is hard evidence to back up that assumption.
RESEARCH AND INNOVATIONS
- A new study shows that less than three doses of the vaccine against cervical cancer can effectively protect women in the developing world where 80% of global deaths due to cervical cancer take place.
- Only three African countries are on track to achieve MGD 5, according to an African Institute for Development Policy study.
- Most efforts in the Western world seeking to find solutions for developing world problems tend to think of inventing new technologies or, at least, using the tools we typically use to fix things — modern drugs for diseases, improved seeds for crops, a better mousetrap. Sometimes, all you need is a newly geared donkey.
- Scientists may have developed a new TB vaccine after tests showed the elimination of TB from infected tissue in mice.
- A socially active lifestyle can dramatically speed up weight loss through the burning of fat in mice, a study shows. Researchers at Ohio State University in the US identified a link between the amount of social interaction in a mouse’s environment and its weight.
- An easy-to-use diagnostic chip for HIV could “give results in minutes” and be a game changer in the field of cheap diagnostics for remote regions, claim the researchers who developed it.
DISEASES AND DISASTERS
- Having to contend with U.S.army drones and the crossfire between the Taliban and the Pakistani army, the residents of Pakistan’s tribal areas find access to treatment for HIV/AIDS harder than in most other parts of the world.
- Three-quarters of a million people are facing death by starvation in Somalia according the United Nations, who declared Monday that famine had spread to a sixth southern region of the beleaguered Horn of Africa state. Meanwhile, an investigation has revealed that masses of food meant for famine victims in Somalia are being stolen. There have also been reports of rioting and killings during food distribution at camps for famine victims.
- A magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck 100km southwest of the city of Medan, Sumatra and 110km beneath the earth’s crust.
- A New York Times editorial castigates the international community’s response to the cholera outbreak in Haiti.
- The CEO of insulin manufacturer Novo Nordisk says the WHO should buy low cost diabetes drugs in bulk for the developing world.
- Messages of good health and positive self-esteem for girls aren’t hard to come by in kid lit, so what’s the deal with all the attention for a not-yet-published rhyming picture book about an obese, unhappy 14-year-old named Maggie?
INFOGRAPHICS AND OTHER MEDIA
Global Fund round 11 is now open for proposals.
GREAT LEARNING OPPORTUNITY
A seven-part webinar series, called the “Outstanding Presentations Workshop,” began this Wednesday and is available for free to all who register. Each one-hour seminar will be streamed live over the next few weeks on Wednesday and will be recorded for later viewing. Take advantage of this wonderful opportunity to improve your presentations and spare your audiences death by PowerPoint. More information is available here, and the schedule can be accessed here.
POLITICS AND POLICY
- In Uganda, the landmark legal case of Jennifer Anguko, a mother who died while she was in labor for 12 hours in a government hospital, will begin in early September.
- Critics of the World Health Organization say it needs to redefine and reposition itself within the increasingly complex and convoluted field of global health. These experts suggest that the world will not suffer if the WHO cuts certain programs while narrowing its focus.
- In the United States, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists are promoting the use of IUDs as the “most effective form of reversible contraception available and safe for most women.”
- The Global Fund may cut its contributions to China by half.
- USAID Admin Dr. Raj Shah announced that $23 million in new aid will be directed towards the Horn of Africa crisis.
- Anonymity is no longer a right of people seeking HIV/AIDS tests in China, and the change has lead to a significant drop in the number of tests being performed.
- The Asian Development Bank has called for Asia-Pacific countries to collaborate on combating HIV/AIDS at the International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.
- Tension between the United States and Pakistan will not prevent USAID from continuing to support health, energy and education systems says the USAID Pakistan Chief.
- The epidemics of diabetes, heart disease and cancers that have stricken the populaces of wealthy countries are spreading to the developing world, yet the United Nations lacks an agreement, let alone an overall goal, on how to limit the preventable illnesses and deaths arising from these so-called non-communicable diseases. The British Medical Journal reports many developed countries, including the U.S. and Canada, are resisting specific targets for reduction in fats, sugars and salt in processed foods.
- Overall, more newborn children are surviving, but slower progress in cutting death rates among babies in the first weeks of life is putting the global goal of reducing child deaths by two-thirds in jeopardy.
- One expert says as the question of aid effectiveness has moved to the centre of development debates. If donors want to make their aid more effective, then they need to engage strategically with the private sector.
- In the Washington Post, Michael Gerson makes the “pro-life” case for increased support for contraception and family planning worldwide.
- UNICEF and international NGOs are working to raise awareness and encourage West African communities to invest in the construction of more pit latrines. Pit latrines, say advocates, can drastically reduce the spread of diarrhea, cholera and worms.
DISEASES AND DISASTERS
- A study published in Nature says that the last three waves of cholera can all be traced back to the Bay of Bengal.
- Despite a massive humanitarian effort after the 2010 earthquake, females in Haiti remain neglected, rights activists say, lacking access to care as they give birth to babies in squalid conditions, often as a result of sex in trade for food or other necessities.
- UN FAO warns that the bird flu is on the rise in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia and Vietnam.
- Reports from the Libyan capital Tripoli say a humanitarian crisis appears to be emerging following the ouster of long-time ruler Muammar Qaddafi. There is a shortage of medicine, fuel, food, water, and power supplies, and growing piles of uncollected garbage.
- Polio has been reported in China and Kenya.
Thanks to Tom Murphy and Mark Leon Goldberg, Tom Paulson, Isobel Hoskins, and UN Wire.